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中国时间: 17:46 2016年12月03日星期六

美语训练班第58课

  • 美国之音


A: 当当当! 本周美语训练班上课啦! 我是杨琳!

B: Welcome to American English Mosaic, 我是Kat! 杨琳,快说说咱们今天都要学什么?

A: 好! 今天,咱们要去看看有机食品的好处,学学怎么接受媒体采访,看看怎么说大力整顿,还要告诉大家怎么用美语说"普通人"和"人脉"!

B: 人脉很重要呀! Yanglin, don't you feel lucky to have a friend like me -- someone who has a very diverse social circle? 跟我混你能认识好多人呐!

A: OMG....对对对, 臭美冠军! 好了好了,不贫嘴了,我们赶快先来进入第一个单元,Learn a Word!

Learn A Word underwater

今天我们要学的词是underwater. Underwater is spelled u-n-d-e-r-w-a-t-e-r. Underwater本意是“水下的”,但用在商业上可以指资不抵债。美国房屋市场次贷危机产生了许多underwater mortgage,就是指房屋按揭额超过房屋市值的贷款。最近的统计发现,Despite rising home prices, more than 30% of borrowers were underwater on their mortgage during the first quarter of 2012. 虽然房价在上涨,但在2012年第一季度,美国贷款买房者中依然有百分之30的人的房子资不抵债。不过,Most underwater homeowners are still paying their mortgages on time. 大部分资不抵债的购房者依然在按时缴纳按揭。好的,今天我们学习的词是underwater, underwater, underwater.

B: Underwater mortgage? Buying a house is not something I see happening any time soon! When you mention the word "underwater," the only thing I can think of is jumping into the pool!

A: 哈! 对啊,我现在就天天在社区游泳池里游! 解暑又减肥!

B: Oh wow, there's a pool at your apartment complex? Can I go swimming with you, PLEASE?

A: Look at those puppy eyes, haha! 可以是可以,不过可能得等过一阵, They're serious about the rules and are cracking down on non-residents using the pool.... 咱们先避避风头....

B: Oh god....那好吧! 不过你刚才提到了一个很好的词儿,crack down, 咱们一起来看看这个习惯用语的用法!

Words and Idioms crack down (on)

现在播送<美国习惯用语>第 967讲。我是杨琳。

M:我是 Steve Baragona.

家长都希望孩子在学校成绩优异,所以会在功课上不遗余力地辅导和帮助孩子,不过,学校似乎觉得这种帮助得有个度。最近,我朋友收到孩子学校寄来的一份合 同,要求家长在上面签字,保证以后不能替孩子写作业,孩子必须交上独立完成的东西。学校的这种做法让我想到一个习惯用语,那就是:

M: Crack down. Crack is spelled c-r-a-c-k, and down; d-o-w-n. Crack-down. Crack down.

Crack down的意思是“大力整顿,严格管制”。上面说到,校长不愿意家长过份插手孩子的作业,所以试图严格限制这种做法,在这里就可以用 crack down. 在下面的例子中,小镇警方将采取行动,解决一个愈来愈严重的问题,我们来听一听:

M: "For months, motorists had been speeding down Main Avenue. They caused a number of accidents including pedestrians being hit. That's when more police officers were assigned to enforce the law. It's worked. Since we CRACKED DOWN on speeding, there have been fewer problems."

这段话意思是:[几个月来,开车的人总是在主街大道上超速飞车,结果发生了好多起交通事故,还有行人被撞到。为此,警方在那里增加了警力,加强执法。这种大力管制很有效,管制开始以来,事故的数量减少了。]

女:其实还可以在事故频发的路口安装摄像头,这样既节省了警力,又能更清楚有效地抓到违反交规的人。违章超速的司机本来洋洋自得,觉得没有警察管,可是会突然在某天接到罚单,因为被“电眼”逮到了!好的,言归正传,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "For months, motorists had been speeding down Main Avenue. They caused a number of accidents including pedestrians being hit. That's when more police officers were assigned to enforce the law. It's worked. Since we CRACKED DOWN on speeding, there have been fewer problems."

刚才说了学校对学生、警察对违规者的严格管理和整顿,现在咱们来看看工作场所。一个严格的老板会怎么做呢?

M: "I know the employee manual says that we only have an hour for lunch. But once in a while I have an errand to run and I get back a few minutes late to the office. My new boss is so strict about the rules. She's taking notes on anyone who's not at his desk on time. She's really CRACKING DOWN ON us."

这段话是说:[我知道员工守则上说我们的午饭时间只有一个小时,不过有时我有些杂事要办,也会晚个几分钟回办公室。我的新老板对这条规定特别叫真儿。所有没按时回到办公桌前的员工都被她注意到。她管我们真是严格无比。]

大家看到了,如果在crack down 后面加人或物时,需要加介词on, to crack down on somebody or something意思就是大力整顿或者打击某事。另外,把crack 和down这两个词放在一起,就变成名词了crackdown, 意思一样,也是打击,镇压。比如,The government began a crackdown on piracy. 政府开始大力打击盗版活动。 好的,让我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "I know the employee manual says that we only have an hour for lunch. But once in a while I have an errand to run and I get back a few minutes late to the office. My new boss is so strict about the rules. She's taking notes on anyone who's not at his desk on time. She's really CRACKING DOWN ON us."

今天我们学习的习惯用语是 crack down,意思是“大力整顿,严格管制”。好的,这次[美国习惯用语]就到此结束,我是杨琳,我是 Steve Baragona。谢谢各位的收听。

B: I hope the crackdown is going to end soon! I can't wait to go swimming! 你看我们普通人住不起高档公寓....

A: 别装可怜了,我不吃这一套!!

B: Oh uh, 被发现了。不过刚才我提到普通人,这个词在美语里也有个说法,咱们一块去听听看!

How to say it in American English

Jessica 在北京学汉语,她的中国朋友要是遇到了不知道用美语怎么说的词,就会来请教她。今天是Jimmy要问的:普通人。

Jessica: Jimmy! I heard you got the scholarship from Cambridge University! 你真厉害啊!

Jimmy: 嘿嘿,没什么大不了的。

Jessica: But that scholarship is very hard to get. After you graduate from Cambridge, 你就是“精英”啦!

Jimmy: 哪里! 我也就一普通人,ordinary person!

Jessica: Hmmm.... I wouldn't call a Cambridge graduate an average Joe.

Jimmy: An average Joe? 我知道 average, a-v-e-r-a-g-e, average 是普通,平均的意思,an average Joe 就是指普通人,平头百姓么?

Jessica: That's right. I think it's because the name "Joe" is very common in English, just like 张三李四 in Chinese.

Jimmy: 对,我就和张三李四一样,你把我往人堆里一放,就找不着啦!

Jessica: Haha! that's a very vivid expression. We have a similar phrase in English. You can say you're "just another face in the crowd".

Jimmy: Just another face in the crowd? 人群中的又一张脸?这个说法好,人海茫茫,你不过就是其中一个而已。对了,说了半天普通人,要是形容那些不同寻常的人,该怎么说呢?

Jessica: You can use "stand out from the crowd" to describe someone who is unusual.

Jimmy: stand out from the crowd, 比别人都站得高,他就明显,这就是不寻常!

Jessica: That's right. Now let's see what you've learned today!

Jimmy: “普通人”在美语里叫 "an average Joe";还可以说 just another face in the crowd; 不同寻常则叫 stand out from the crowd!

这次的“美语怎么说”就到这里了。如果你也有不会说的词,请写信给 Jessica, 电邮请寄meiyu@voanews.com

B: Well, since we can't go to the pool at your place, do you want to go to the beach with me?

A: 那当然了! 对了,你不就在海滩小镇长大的吗?

B: 对啊! 而且,如果我们去海滩,we can not only swim, but can also enjoy the sun and eat tons of delicious BBQ!

A: That sounds GREAT! I'm definitely in! 我可以带一些有机玉米去烤,特别好吃!

B: 难道你也是个有机食品控?

A: 没错! 下面的美语三级跳里就谈到了这种有机食品,Organic food,我们一起来听一听!

GoEnglish: Food (Intermediate)

今天我们为您播出“美语三级跳”节目“食物”单元的中级课程。

Professor: Doug and Liz are at a supermarket buying food to cook for dinner. In the last episode they ate a lot of fast food, so now they want to buy some healthy organic food.

不过,professor Bowman, organic food--有机食品价格比较贵,不知道 Doug和Liz 舍不舍得买。

Professor: Let's listen and find out.

Liz: Alright Doug, first we need to buy some produce. What kinds of fruits and vegetables should we get?

Doug: Wow, look how big those oranges are! Let's get some of those.

Liz: No let's not get those. They put all kinds of artificial things into them to make them grow that big. Let's get some organic ones.

Doug: But the organic ones are much smaller and more expensive.

Liz: Doug, it's worth it to pay more for healthy food.

Doug想买那些又圆又大的橙子, 可Liz说,这些橙子是人工助长的,不健康,她想买纯天然的有机食品。对了,Professor, 什么是produce?

Professor: "Produce" is a general word for fruits and vegetables. If you go to a store and want to buy fruits and vegetables, you can ask where the produce section is.

我明白了,produce就是蔬菜水果这些农产品。

Liz: Alright, next we have to go to the dairy section. We need milk and cheese.

Doug: Great! I have a coupon for milk. It's only 2 dollars per gallon!

Liz: No way! I want all-natural milk. The Happy Cow Milk Company gives its cows massages every day and lets them listen to music.

Doug: Yeah, and it's three times more expensive! Who cares if the cows are really happy and relaxed?

Liz: A happy cow is a healthy cow, and a healthy cow produces the best milk!

Professor Bowman, dairy在这里是指奶制品吧?

Professor: Exactly. And remember, in America, milk is usually sold in gallons.

噢,在美国,牛奶按“gallon”,“加仑”卖。Doug 说,他有一张牛奶的coupon--优惠券,可是 Liz不要这种便宜牛奶,她要一家给乳牛按摩、听音乐的公司出的牛奶。

Professor: Can you believe that? I think buying organic food is good, but massages for cows are a little ridiculous.

Liz: Alright, now let's go get some soap. Can you go get me some all-natural deodorant?

Doug: All-natural deodorant? Oh come on, Liz. Deodorants with chemicals in them work much better.

Liz: No way! All those chemicals are really bad for your health. I don't want to get cancer.

Doug: Yeah, but I don't want to have a girlfriend who smells really bad. Liz, you can buy all-natural food, but I draw the line at personal hygiene.

哇,Liz 连deodorant--香氛剂都要all-natural--纯天然。

Professor: She seems to be worried that the chemicals in other deodorants will give her cancer.

可Doug说“draws the line at personal hygiene”是什么意思呢?

Professor: Winnie, when you draw the line at something, it means you will not tolerate it. For example, it's good for people to be nice to their pets, but when they treat them like children, that's where I draw the line.

MC: 我明白了, draw the line at something就是“拒绝接受”的意思。Doug 说,Liz可以买全天然食物,但不能买全天然的香氛剂,因为没有化学成分的香氛剂根本不香,Liz会变得臭臭的,Doug可受不了这样的女朋友。

Professor: Exactly. Now let's listen to them paying the cashier.

Cashier: Would you like paper or plastic?

Doug: We'll take plastic bags.

Liz: Doug, what are you doing? We can't use plastic bags. They're bad for the environment!

Doug: OK fine. Can you put them in paper bags please?

Liz: Doug, paper is bad for the environment too! They have to cut down trees to make paper bags.

Doug: Well what are we going to do? We need some kind of bag to bring the groceries home.

Liz: Let's buy a cloth bag that's reusable. They're only 10 dollars.

Doug: I was afraid you would say that!

Professor: So Winnie, why doesn't Liz want to put the groceries in paper or plastic bags?

MC: 她觉得塑料袋和纸袋都对环境有害,所以要买个可以反复用的布袋子。Professor,Doug和Liz买这么多菜,不知道会做些什么好吃的!

Professor: Listen next time to find out!

A: 好吧! 我都等不及了! 咱们赶快来计划一下咱们的海滩之行吧!

B: This is going to be so much fun! But remember to bring your sun block- last time I was on the beach, there was a camera crew interviewing people about their summer plans. This one guy was bright red, head to toe! 太丢人了!

A: You really do want to be famous Kat- 你是不是老琢磨着打扮好随时接受采访啊?

B: A girl's always gotta be prepared to look great, Yang Lin!

A: 哈哈,没错! 面试或者接受采访之前,可千万得注意自己的形象! 这不,下面的business etiquette里,为了接受媒体采访,公司主管还特别请人来给他培训呢!

B: Let's listen and learn some tips for your next big break!

礼节美语 Preparing for a Media Interview I

公司主管 Lenny 要接受媒体采访,让秘书 Jessica 帮他请了一个咨询顾问,预先做准备。Lenny 打电话问 Jessica:

Lenny: Hey, Jessica...did you set up that appointment with the media consultant?

Jessica: I sure did, boss. I expect her any minute now.

L: Good. I'm kind of jittery about this interview. I'm new at this and the idea of going on television gives me butterflies in my stomach.

J: Don't worry sir, I'm sure you'll do just fine...oh, here's the consultant!

Carl: Hi, I'm Carl Anderson from Plus 1 Media Consultants.

J: Hi Carl. Mr. Lee is waiting for you in his office. Please come this way.

秘书Jessica告诉老板,咨询顾问约好了,随时会到。I expect her any minute now. Lenny承认,他以前没接受过采访,I'm new at this. 所以感觉很紧张,I'm kind of jittery about this interview. jittery is spelled j-i-t-t-e-r-y, jittery 意思是紧张,心里打鼓,也可以说 The interview gives me butterflies in my stomach. to have butterflies in one's stomach 也是心里紧张,七上八下的意思。正说着,咨询公司的Carl到了,Jessica 带她去见 Lenny.

C: Good morning, Mr. Lee. Nice to meet you!

L: Hello Carl. So...I hear you can help me nail this upcoming interview.

C: Our company specializes in media matters. We can help you learn how to put your best foot forward, what pitfalls to avoid and how to sound friendly without sounding insincere.

L: Those would be good points...okay, let's hear what you got.

C: For starters, let's talk about the news organization that's going to be interviewing you. Business Watch International or BWI is a hard-hitting business news channel. They won't make it too easy for you.

Carl工作的咨询公司做的就是跟媒体有关的事情。They specialize in media matters. specialize is spelled s-p-e-c-i-a-l-i-z-e, specialize是专门从事的意思,后面跟介词 in. Carl能教 Lenny 如何 put your best foot forward 展现出自己最好的一面,让他显得友好但又不虚伪。Carl说,准备采访Lenny的媒体 BWI is a hard-hitting business news channel. hard-hitting意思是力度大,毫不客气的。Lenny问:

L: So no softball questions, huh?

C: Actually, the interviewer will probably start off with a couple of really easy and complementary questions. But don't let these fool you into a false sense of security. Right after the interviewer butters you up, he or she will throw you a curve ball.

L: Okay, so in the beginning I'll try to remain guarded.

Carl说,采访Lenny的记者上来会先问几个简单的问题,这种问题也可以叫 softball questions,相对于 hardball questions, 刁难人的题。但是Carl警告Lenny说,Don't let these fool you into a false sense of security. 别上当,错误地觉得自己安全了。to fool someone into a false sense of security 意思是给人错觉,让人觉得自己很安全。Carl 还说,Right after the interviewer butters you up, he or she will throw you a curve ball. 这里所说的 to butter someone up 意思是恭维某人,throw a curve ball at someone 意思是出其不意地刁难某人。看起来,Lenny一定得保持警觉,remain guarded. 或者也可以说,He cannot let his guard down. 不能放松警惕。

A: Hmm, 不管是采访还是面试,要是我我就不紧张! 我最爱跟人面对面交流了!

B: You are definitely a people person, girl! 我也同意,就拿找工作来说, I think I can tackle interviews, the hard part is how to get the opportunity to have an interview!

A: 那当然就得看你的人脉啦!

B: Exactly. That's especially true with today's competition in the job market!

A: 没错! 这不,在下面的美语怎么说里,我们就来看看人脉这个词儿的美语说法!

How to say it in American English

Donny在北京学汉语,他的中国朋友要是遇到了不知道用美语怎么说的词,就会来请教他。今天是方方要问的:人脉。

Donny: 方方,听说你找到一个特好的实习?

ff: 还不错啦! 现在竞争激烈,多亏我人脉广! 对了,美语里“人脉”怎么说啊?

Donny: I think you can use the word "connection". c-o-n-n-e-c-t-i-o-n, connection.

ff: 原来connection 就是“人脉”。那我说自己路子野,人脉广,就是 I have a lot of connections. 对么?

Donny: That's right. 你还可以说:I'm well-connected. c-o-n-n-e-c-t-e-d, connected。

ff: connected? 这词儿我知道,意思是“连在一起”,所以well-connected就是和很多人连在一起,也就是人脉广喽!

Donny: Right! Connections are important. 有人说,找工作时,What really counts is not what you know, but who you know.

ff: "Not what you know but who you know?" 不是看你知道什么,而是看你认识谁? 我觉得,也不能这么绝对! 关系固然重要,但自己还是要有真本事!

Donny: Certainly! So it should be "what you know plus who you know"!

ff: 对,肚子里有学问,人脉又广,二者结合在一起,你就无敌了。不过,像我这种刚出校门的,社交能力还不行,需要磨炼!

Donny: Don't worry. You'll have plenty of time to work on your networking skills.

ff: 哦,networking skills 就是社交技巧。

Donny: Right. With strong networking skills, you'll develop more connections. 到时候,我找工作可得靠你帮忙了!

ff: 哈哈,我期待这一天!

Donny: 先别美! Tell me what you've learned today!

ff: 第一,"人脉"在美语里就是 connection;

第二,形容"人脉广"用 well-connected;

第三,社交技巧, 是 networking skills!

这次的美语怎么说 就到这里。如果你也有不会说的词,请写信给 donny, 电邮请寄meiyu@voanews.com

B: So you see, my network of broke friends from college will totally come in handy one day! Wanna learn how to cook ramen? CHECK. Mend your own shoes? CHECK. Sew your own clothes? CHECK.

A: 啊...你说的是这种人脉呀.... 我还是跟同学们好好建立人脉吧! 好了同学们,这次节目时间就到这里。 如果你对我们的节目有什么建议,或者想提什么问题,请发电子邮件到meiyu@voanews.com.

B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: We will see u next time!
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