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中国时间: 23:49 2016年12月09日星期五

美语训练班第72课

  • 美国之音

B: 我是Mike! 杨琳,来告诉大家今天都要学什么?

A: 好滴! 今天,我们要带你去看看美国的药店,聊聊怎么健身保持体型,学学怎么表达走极端,还要告诉你怎么说"冷幽默"!

B: Oh, dry humor? Its one of my many expertise!

A: Well, I think that's your only expertise! (Mike: ouch) 不过现在,咱们还是先来进入第一个单元,Learn a Word!

Learn A Word 1568 across the board

今天我们要学的词是 across the board. Across is spelled a-c-r-o-s-s; board is spelled b-o-a-r-d, across the board. Across the board 指所有人,所有方面。最新调查显示,The number of young adults living with their parents has risen across the board, no matter their age, race or geographic locations. 跟父母住在一起的年轻成年人全面增加,不论年龄,种族,也不论地理位置。美国房屋市场7月底公布的数字显示,Housing prices are up across the board from a month before. 跟一个月前的数字相比,房价普遍上涨。在福布斯杂志公布的最新大学排名中,普林斯顿名列第一。Princeton is doing really well across the board. 普林斯顿大学的各项表现都很出色。好的,今天我们学习的词是 across the board, across the board, across the board...

A: 让我也来造个句, 哦有了! Across the board, our listeners prefer my voice to yours.

B: 杨琳,I hope that's supposed to be dry humor because otherwise you are horribly out of touch with reality.

A: 哈哈,好了好了。咱们休战,好吧? (笑) So, what did you do over the weekend?

B: Oh I took an artist friend out to dinner. She does paintings for business offices but the bad economy means that few businesses are spending money on art. So she's having some trouble making ends meet.

A: 哈? 艺术家阿?

B: Yeah, My friend says that life as an artists is hard because work is either feast or famine.

A: 哦,艺术家的生活确实没太多保障。不过既然你已经提到了feast and famine, 咱们就来听听这个习惯用语的用法吧!

Words and Idioms #982

现在播送美国习惯用语第 982讲。我是杨琳。

M:我是Dan Markus.

最近我的小外甥特别高兴。他今年铲雪赚了不少钱,正好可以用这些钱来买新的电子游戏。今年下了不少雪,所以他也赚得很多。可去年冬天天气就特别暖和,所以他一点活儿都没有。在英语里,我们可以用一个习惯用语来形容这种情形:

M: Feast or famine. Feast is spelled f-e-a-s-t, feast; and famine; f-a-m-i-n-e. Feast or famine.

Feast 是盛宴的意思,而 famine 是饥荒,feast or famine 意思就是走极端,要么多得要命,要么少得可怜。上面的例子里,我外甥的工作要不就是多得数不过来,要不就是一点都没有。 It's been either FEAST OR FAMINE。在下面的例子里,我们来听听一个爵士乐手的经历,你就能明白为什么艺术有时候只能当作一种爱好了。

M: "I love playing in a jazz band. But I can't rely on it for a full-time salary. During the spring and summer, we get hired a lot to play at weddings, outdoor concerts and festivals. Then, once the cooler temperatures set in, we don't get that many jobs at all. It's FEAST OR FAMINE."

这段话是说:我很爱在爵士乐队里演出。但是我不能靠这个来谋生。春夏两个季节,我们经常去各种婚礼,室外演唱会和节日场合演出。可是一旦天气开始变冷,我们的工作机会就没那么多了。忙的时候忙死,闲的时候闲死。]

这也让我想起我的一个邻居。她是个画家,尽管大多数时候生活还行,可是有些时候手头也会觉得紧。这是因为经济好的时候,人们有足够的钱来享受生活,也会更多地投资艺术品。可是每当经济不好的时候,人们可能什么都不会买。For painters or musicians, it's either FEAST OR FAMINE. 对画家或音乐家来说,就是这么,活多的时候忙死,活少的时候闲死。好的,让我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "I love playing in a jazz band. But I can't reply on it for a full-time salary. During the spring and summer, we get hired a lot to play at weddings, outdoor concerts and festivals. Then, once the cooler temperatures set in, we don't get that many jobs at all. It's FEAST OR FAMINE."

对于美国人来说,夏天有很多旅游胜地,其中一个是Cape Cod 鳕鱼角。这是美国马塞诸塞州的一个半岛,由于气候凉爽宜人,人们喜欢在夏天去那里休闲度假。让我们来听听旅游记者是怎么介绍的:

M: "Cape Cod is the eastern tip of Massachusetts. It's always been a popular destination for tourists in the summer who enjoy activities like going to the beach, fishing or whale watching. For providers of goods and services there, business used to be rather FEAST OR FAMINE. But people are now living in the area year-round. So business is much more constant."

这段话是说: 鳕鱼角位于马塞诸塞最东部。在夏天,这里是一个旅游胜地。人们喜欢去海滩,钓鱼或者出海看鲸鱼。对于在那里买东西或是提供各种服务的人来说,过去生意不稳定,忙的时候特别忙,淡的时候特别淡。不过现在,很多人常年住在那里,所以生意也就比较平衡稳定了。]

的确是这样。很多以季节为卖点的旅游胜地,旅游旺季生意就多,旅游淡季生意就少。For a ski resort or a beach, business has always been FEAST OR FAMINE. 比如滑雪场或者海滩,生意就是时好时坏。我觉得,这些地方应该开发其他服务项目,设法常年吸引顾客。好的,让我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "Cape Cod is the eastern tip of Massachusetts. It's always been a popular destination for tourists in the summer who enjoy activities like going to the beach, fishing or whale watching. For providers of goods and services there, business used to be rather FEAST OR FAMINE. But people are now living in the area year-round. So business is much more constant."

今天我们学习的习惯用语是feast or famine, 意思是“极端化,时好时坏”。好的,这次[美国习惯用语]就到此结束,我是杨琳,我是Dan Markus。谢谢各位的收听。

A : Feast and famine, 走极端。That seems to describe our situation pretty well. While I'm always super busy, you always seem to be doing nothing. 哎,没办法,能干的人总是这么忙呀!

B: Hey,after spending 5 years in America, you've finally learn how to do dry humor!!! We've Americanize you!

A: What? 才没有! 我可是取其精华,去其糟粕! I think dry humor is a very important part in American culture, people always appreciate if you have a good sense of humor.

B: Yep, actually one of the top things that American's look for in a significant other is a good sense of humor.

A: 对! 在下面的美语怎么说里,我们就要带你去看看各种幽默笑话要怎么说!

B: Let's listen!

How to say it in American English

Jessica 在北京学汉语,她的中国朋友要是遇到了不知道用美语怎么说的词,就会来请教她。今天是Luis要问的:冷幽默。

LZ: Jessica, you won't believe it! Last night, I met the funniest guy ever!
Jessica: No way! 他怎么好玩儿了?Did he wear bunny ears?

LZ: 头上戴着兔耳朵?这种是幼儿园级的搞笑,没劲! 这人的特点是,每句话都特逗,可是自己从来不笑! 对了,这种冷幽默在美语里要怎么说呢?

Jessica: We call that dry humor. With dry humor, the emphasis is not on funny facial expressions or exaggerated body moves, rather, it's the joke itself that's really humorous.

LZ: 哦,dry humor, 不靠夸张的表情和动作,纯粹靠笑话本身好笑。The guy I was talking about did have a dry sense of humor.

Jessica: I bet he kept a straight face while telling jokes that made everyone else laugh their pants off!

LZ: exactly! 别人都笑翻了,就他自己面无表情地继续讲。这人的冷幽默在party上特受人欢迎。以前大家为了找乐子,顶多就是讲几个荤段子。哎?这“荤段子”又要怎么说呢?

Jessica: We call them "off-color jokes." The most common off-color jokes are about sex, but they can also touch on violence, ethnic groups or other impolite topics.

LZ: 原来荤段子就是off-color jokes, 除了情色内容,还可以是别的有冒犯性的话题。

Jessica: Off-color jokes can be really offensive to those who aren't that close to you or don't share your sense of humor. So, use them carefully.
LZ: 没错,讲荤段子得分对什么人,不熟的朋友可别讲! 啊,说了这么多段子,幽默,我真是跃跃欲试!

Jessica: What? Give what a try?

LZ: 我本来就是个特有幽默感的人,我觉得我能成一单口相声演员!

Jessica: A standup comedian? You?

LZ: 原来, Standup comedian 就是单口相声演员,那行,I'll make standup comedian one of my career goals!

Jessica: Is this dry humor? 'Cos I didn't get it!

LZ: 今天我们学了,冷幽默是dry humor; 荤段子off-color jokes; 单口相声演员是standup comedian.

A: Standup comedian! Oh my gosh, I L-O-V-E Russell Peters!
B: Russell Peters is pretty funny. I'm more of a 相声 guy myself though

A: 哇,你这么中国呐! 不过也是,我记得我小时候生病的时候,爸爸就给我放中央台相声,一乐我就好了!

B: Hahaha, yep, in English we have a saying: "laughter is the best medicine"! When you are really sick, you still need to go the doctor or get some medicine! In today's Go English, we will take you to an American drug store!

A: 对,在美国,医院和药店是分开的,我们赶快去听听看吧!

Health: Beginner

大家好!今天我们为您播出“美语三级跳”节目“医药”单元的初级课程。

Helen 觉得不舒服,要去药店买药。Professor Bowman, “药店”的英文我知道两个,一个是drug store, 还有一个是pharmacy, p-h-a-r-m-a-c-y.

Professor: Yes, Winnie, they are both stores where you buy medicine. In this first section, Helen is talking to the pharmacist to get recommendations on what kind of medicine she should take.

Pharmacist: Hello. Can I help you?

Helen: Yes, I haven't been feeling well lately and need some medicine.

Pharmacist: I see. Do you have a prescription?

Helen: No, I just want some non-prescription medicine.

Professor: So Winnie, what kind of medicine does Helen want?

药店的pharmacist - 药剂师问Helen是不是要买 prescription medicine-- 处方药,不过Helen说她只想买点 non-prescription medicine--非处方药。

Professor: That's right. Prescription is spelled p-r-e-s-c-r-i-p-t-i-o-n, prescription. Sometimes people also call non-prescription medicine "over-the-counter" medicine.

哦,counter是柜台的意思,所以"over-the-counter" medicine,就是“直接从柜台抓的药”,也就是不需要医生开的非处方药。

Professor: Now let's hear what's wrong with Helen.

Pharmacist: Before I can recommend some medicine, I need to know your symptoms.

Helen: My stomach has been hurting, and I have had a bad headache.

Pharmacist: Sure, I have a very good medicine for those symptoms.

Helen: I hope it works! I've really been feeling under the weather.

原来,Helen感觉胃疼,头疼。 Professor, 我猜symptom就是“症状”的意思吧?

Professor: Exactly! symptom is spelled s-y-m-p-t-o-m, symptom. Doctors will ask you to describe your symptoms so that they can diagnose what is wrong with you.

对,医生要听病人讲了症状之后,才能诊断。对了, professor, Helen还说 she is feeling "under the weather",这是什么意思?

Professor: That's just a common phrase to say that you are feeling sick. For example, I didn't go to work yesterday because I was feeling under the weather.

哦,under the weather就是“感觉身体不舒服”。真希望药剂师能给Helen推荐一些有效的药。

Pharmacist: Take this medicine once in the morning and once at night. You will feel much better.

Helen: OK, what is the dose?

Pharmacist: There are two pills per dose.

Helen: And are there any side effects?

Pharmacist: It may make you feel drowsy, so don't drive after taking it.

Professor, 什么叫“dose”?

Professor: The dose, d-o-s-e, is the amount of medicine you should take.

MC: 哦,dose 就是服药的剂量。药剂师让Helen早晚各吃一次药,每次的量是 two pills--两片儿。

Professor: Right. And did you hear what the side effects of this medicine are?

嗯,这个药有side effects--副作用,那就是 Helen可能会觉得drowsy--困倦,想睡觉。所以,药剂师说,在吃了这些药之后,不要隍7d车。

Pharmacist: Before I give this to you, I need to ask one last question. Do you have any allergies?

Helen: I'm not allergic to any medicine, although I have an allergy to peanuts.

Pharmacy: That isn't a problem. There aren't any peanuts in this medication.

Helen: Well thank you very much for your help. I will follow the directions.

Pharmacist: If you don't feel better, you should schedule a doctor's appointment to get a diagnosis.

Professor: So Winnie, did you hear what Helen is allergic to?

allergic就是指对什么东西过敏,Helen说她对药物并不过敏,不过,她对peanuts--花生,过敏。

Professor: Right. And what did the pharmacist tell Helen to do if her symptoms don't get better?

他说,如果吃了药不见好,就要去看医生。我总觉得,问问医生的意见比较保险,医生总比药剂师强吧?
Professor: But don't you think this pharmacist sounds pretty good?

那就要看Helen吃了这些药,效果如何喽!

A: 原来,Helen感觉under the weather,身体不舒服,于是去药店想买一些over the counter medicine, 非处方药。 药师向她推荐了一种药,而这种药有个轻微的side effect,副作用,就是容易疲倦,get drowsy.

B: Yep, a pharmacist's advice is pretty useful when you don't have time to see a doctor.

A:我也是这么觉得,在美国要是生了病我可懒得去看医生,还得预约,太麻烦了!

B: True true. the best thing you can do is to try and live a healthy lifestyle, that way you won't get sick easily.

A: Exactly! 少吃多运动! 不过吧,对我来说,我又不爱运动,又爱吃....

B: You really should come to the gym with me! If start now I might be able to help you work off those love handles before you 90.

A: 你说什么 呢??,That had better have been dry humor! 好了好了,不说咱们了,在下面的business etiquette里,三个公司高管要开会讨论员工保健项目! 咱们一起去听听看!

礼节美语 - Fitness Program - part I

公司高管 Peter, Jason 和 Helen 开会讨论员工保健项目。Peter 首先发言。

Peter: Well folks, we've come to the last item on our agenda: our corporate wellness program.

Jason: Yeah, I'm very interested to see where you're going to do with this. It's a very delicate issue.

P: Yes, it can be. But here's our general thinking: if employees are healthier the company benefits and makes more profit. Making more profit is good for everyone in the company.

会议最后一项议事日程是公司的保健项目。The last item on the agenda is the corporate wellness program。这是个 delicate issue 很棘手、很微妙的问题。Peter 解释说,员工健康会增加公司的利润,公司利润的提高对大家都有好处。

P: Studies show that when employees are fit, there is less illness, a better attitude toward work, lower absenteeism and even better
relationships at work.

Helen: Ok...I get you. But I'm concerned about our company becoming a kind of "big brother." Is it really our job to tell our workers how to care for themselves?

有研究说,雇员健康的好处包括:少生病,工作态度改善,少请假,以及更为融洽的同事关系。这里的 absenteeism, a-b-s-e-n-t-e-e-i-s-m, 是缺席的意思。Helen 说,I get you. 我明白你的意思。但她担心公司会成为对员工指手划脚的 big brother 过于专制的老大哥。

P: Well, let me explain the idea. The first part is on our side. We in management need to provide some kind of affordable exercise options. I've spoken to several of our designers who say they would definitely sign another year's contract if we could provide exercise options.

J: So part of the plan is an effort to retain talent?

P: Yep. And to that end we will be turning the basement level into a small workout center with a shower.

Peter 解释说,公司要提供某种形式的健身项目,目的之一是 to retain talent. 留住人才。为此,公司准备把地下室改造成带淋浴的小型健身中心,a small workout center with a shower.

H: I like that. Then we could be flexible with what time we workout.
Come in early, stay late or even grab a workout during a lunch break...that would be great.

P: It requires some investment on our part, but we really do believe it could boost productivity.

J: I'm on board for that!

这样一来,大家健身的时间可以很机动,very flexible, 可以早来、可以晚走,也可以利用午饭时间,during lunch break. Jason 说,I'm on board for that. 我支持。

A: 公司高管们们在讨论在办公大楼里修建一个健身中心,他们认为劳役结合才能够retain talents, 留住人才。Peter认为应该build a small workout center with a shower, 建一个带淋浴得小型健身中心,这样让员工们能够保持健康,心情愉快,自然boost productivity, 提高生产力。

B: I think that's a great idea. I go to the gym in our building after work everyday. It's convenient and it definitely helps me to relax after a long day of work.

A: 可是我一跑步就觉得好累好无聊.....

B: That's the beauty of the gym. You don't necessarily need to run, there's a lot of weights and fitness machines you can use. I'm sure you can find something that you enjoy!

A: That's true! 好啦,咱们接着回到节目里来,Peter提出了一个棘手的问题,咱们一起来看看高管们有什么解决方案!

礼节美语 - Fitness Program - part II

公司高管 Peter, Jason 和 Helen 开会讨论员工保健项目。大家都赞成把地下室改成健身中心。然而,Peter 提出了一个棘手的问题。

P: Now comes the sensitive part -- setting standards and setting penalties for non-compliance.

H: Oooh. That is tough.

P: Take smoking for example. Smoking tobacco is legal - of course - but our records show we pay roughly 25% more in medical costs for our employees who smoke. Is that fair to the other employees or to the company?

如果员工不按规定做,该怎么办,这个问题很敏感 sensitive。Take smoking for example. 比如说吸烟。Peter 说,公司为吸烟员工支付的医疗费用比不吸烟的人多百分之25,这种情况对其它员工、对公司公平吗?

H: That's an interesting point. A person's actions really do have a bigger effect than we think they do.

J: As they say: "No man is an island."

P: That's right. OK...here's an even more delicate situation. What do we do with people who are seriously overweight or obese?

No man is an island 没有人是孤岛,意思是说你的行动一定会影响到别人。除了吸烟的员工外,还有一类员工也很让人头疼,那就是体重超重或是肥胖的人。overweight 是超重的意思,如果更严重的话,就变成了 obese, o-b-e-s-e, 肥胖。

J: Um...like me?

(Laughter)

H: You're not that bad, Jason!

J: Well, I'm certainly overweight. I've been carrying around an extra 20 pounds for years now.

P: Well, you're certainly not alone. Weight is a serious problem faced by many in this country. But again, our records show that obese people also cost a great deal more to insure and their medical conditions are much more expensive to deal with. We don't want to be callous, but it's affecting our bottom line.

J: Well, I'd personally love to lose some weight and the new gym might help.

Jason 承认自己体重超标。他说,I've been carrying around an extra 20 pounds for years now. 很多年来,我的体重一种超标20磅。Peter 说,you are certainly not alone. 意思是超重绝不是你一个人的问题。虽然我们不想不尽人情,we don't want to be callous, c-a-l-l-o-u-s, 意思是冷酷无情,但是这个问题已经影响到了公司的 bottom line. Bottom line 指的是公司的利润底线。Jason 说,他个人其实很想减肥,新开的健身房说不定会对他有帮助。

A: You know what, I think I've been carrying an extra 5 pounds....怎么办? 怎么办?

B: Well, I mean, I could be your personal trainer.... for a minor fee

A: 你啊? 还是算了吧...
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