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中国时间: 00:01 2016年12月07日星期三

美语训练班第101课

  • 美国之音

A: 欢迎大家来到这期的美语训练班! 我是杨琳!

B: 我是Mike! 杨琳,来告诉大家今天都要学什么!

A: Sure! 今天,我们要一起看看提高销售业绩的好方法,看看父母出钱上大学到底好不好,还要告诉你怎么说两害相权取其轻!

B: I know that it's common for Chinese parents to pay for their kids’ education, but in America, a lot of people have to get a student loan to go to college. I guess that’s a major culture difference.

A: 我也觉得是,美国人好像都比较独立。中国人呢,特别看重教育,所以父母为了让子女受到更好的教育都不惜花好多钱。

B: Yep...look at you...graduate student....

A: I think this is only because I'm smarter than you! (B: Hey!) 好了好了,不开玩笑了,咱们赶快来学习吧! 先来进入第一个单元,Learn a word!

Learn A Word 1688 academic

今天我们要学的词是academic. Academic is spelled academic, academic. Academic 学术的。Five states in America will add at least 300 hours to the academic calendar in some schools this year. 美国五个州今年会给一些学校的学生增加至少300个小时的教学时间。一项最新研究显示,College students whose parents pay for their tuition tend to have lower academic performance. 父母出钱付学费的大学生,成绩反而比较差。有研究显示,Annual spending on sports by public universities is about six to twelve times the amount of their academic spending. 公立大学每年用在运动项目上的开销是其教学经费的六到十二倍。好的,今天我们学习的词是 academic, academic, academic...

A: Universities spend more on sports than academics? That totally explains it...see how much attention March Madness has received!

B: Exactly! But sports are fun! (Talk about a kind of sports that you do...)

A: 我就不行! 我什么体育都不爱看,而且老觉得规则复杂,什么都看不明白啊!

B: That sounds like you!

A: 嘿! 算了,不跟你贫了,咱们回到正题,来听听今天的美国习惯用语,leave in the lurch!

Words and Idioms 823 LEAVE IN THE LURCH

美国习惯用语第 823讲

我去年在一家电器商店买了一台摄像机,当时店里的售货员告诉我说,如果发生故障,可以随时把摄像机拿回店里,五年内免费保修。结果,上星期,摄像机上的录制键坏了,我拿回去修,谁知道,那家店早就倒闭了。今天我们要学的习惯用语能够恰如其分地描述我当时的心情:

M: Leave in the lurch. Leave is spelled leave, and lurch; lurch. Leaveinthelurch. Leave in the lurch.

Leave in the lurch 这个习惯用语的意思是弃别人于危难之中,置别人于困境而不顾。这回你明白了吧,那家电器行倒闭,让我没办法修理本来可以保修的摄像机。也就是,It's left me in the lurch.

不过,并不是所有人都会置别人的利益于不顾。让我们听听下面这个医生的故事。

M: "The interview went so well that the hospital administrator offered Dr. Long the job. The trouble is she wanted him to start right away. He explained that his clinic wouldn't be able to find a replacement so quickly. And he couldn't abandon his patients like that. He was too professional to LEAVE them IN THE LURCH."

医院负责人经过面试,对龙大夫特别满意,希望他能立即开始工作。但是龙大夫解释说,他现在的诊所无法马上找到替代他的医生,他不能就这样抛弃自己的病人,作为医生,他不能置自己的病人于不顾。

这不禁让我想起了女儿的班主任。虽然她先生调到西部去工作,但是她却决定要待到学期结束,因为她觉得中途换老师对学生不好。I appreciate her not LEAVING THEM IN THE LURCH. 她对学生如此负责的态度让我深受感动。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "The interview went so well that the hospital administrator offered Dr. Long the job. The trouble is she wanted him to start right away. He explained that his clinic wouldn't be able to find a replacement so quickly. And he couldn't abandon his patients like that. He was too professional to LEAVE them IN THE LURCH."

在刚才的例子里,我们提到,一位老师为了学生的利益,宁可暂时和丈夫分开,也不愿意在学期结束前辞职。但是有些人,却能对自己亲生骨肉的利益都置若罔闻。让我们一起听听看。

M: "After the divorce, Bill's kids felt LEFT IN THE LURCH. They'd rarely see him as they grew up. Not only was he absent on special occasions like birthdays and graduations, but also during tough times when they really needed a dad. They never got over that sense of abandonment."

离婚后,比尔的孩子感觉好像完全被父亲遗弃了。在他们的成长过程中,很少能见到他,不仅孩子过生日或是毕业典礼等重要场合上看不到他的身影,其他孩子们最需要父亲的时候他也从来不在他们的身旁。孩子们始终无法原谅他这种不闻不问的态度。

这些孩子的要求其实并不过份,虽然夫妻离异,但孩子是无辜的,不论是父亲还是母亲,只要依然在世,就应该继续陪伴孩子的成长。

我的曾祖父很早就去世了,跟当时其他妇女一样,我的曾祖母并不工作,而且又没有现在的社会保障,She was LEFT IN THE LURCH。幸运的是,她在工厂里找到了一份工作,才能勉强养家糊口。好,我们再听一下上面的例句。

M: "After the divorce, Bill's kids felt LEFT IN THE LURCH. They'd rarely see him as they grew up. Not only was he absent on special occasions like birthdays and graduations, but also during tough times when they really needed a dad. They never got over that sense of abandonment."

早在十六世纪的时候,法国有一个骰子游戏叫 LOURCHE。按照游戏规则,如果你的分数远远落后于其他人,就算是 LOURCHE。后来,这个词逐渐被用在其他游戏上,并发展成了今天的习惯用语 leave in the lurch.

好的,这次美国习惯用语就到此结束了。

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: 现在失业率这么高,政府又越来越穷,A lot of people were left in the lurch. 很多人都陷入困境,艰难度日。

B:Yep! So it's really important to keep up the good work!

A: Definitely! We need to find a way to better promote our show as well.

B: Well, I guess you just have to remind everyone of how handsome I am...

A: OMG... Where does this overabundance of confidence come from?

B: Just kidding. Well, in today's business etiquette, we are going to talk about ways to boost sales for a company. So let's go and take a look!

礼节美语BE233 Boosting Sales I

公司副总裁Lisa找到销售部经理Frank.

Lisa: Frank, we just got our sales figures in and the numbers are very disappointing. What's going on here?

Frank: I haven't actually seen the new figures. How far have we fallen?

L: We were in sixth place at the beginning of the year and we've now slipped to the eleventh! That's a considerable drop.

F: Wow, that's really bad news. Maybe we should brainstorm some ideas for a radical reinvention of our sales and marketing plan.

L: Yeah, let's do that right now. What do you think the problem is?

公司副总裁Lisa找到销售部经理Frank, 因为最新销售数字很令人失望,年初的时候还排名第六,we've now slipped to the eleventh. 如今已经滑落到了第11位,下跌幅度很大,That's a considerable drop. Frank听了这个坏消息,觉得应该 brainstorm some ideas,to brainstorm 是头脑风暴,集思广益的意思,看看怎样彻底调整一下公司的销售和市场规划。Lisa建议,择日不如撞日,说谈就谈,问Frank觉得问题出在哪里。

F: Well, it seems our competitors have managed to carve a niche in the market. They are now perceived as more "cool" or trendy than we are. Perhaps we should consider getting some celebrity endorsements.

L: You mean like a rock star or a famous sports figure?

F: Yeah, that might help. The person has to be seen as kind of a rebel so we can associate our brand with individuality.

L: That's not a bad idea. I'll talk to the Board of Directors about that.

F: I'd also suggest we reevaluate our packaging. Right now the box we sell our product in seems a little drab and colorless.

Frank说,公司的竞争对手 carved a niche in the market 在市场中找到了属于自己的一块地方,niche is spelled niche, niche 是缝隙的意思,动词 carve 是雕刻,划出的意思。Frank说,现在消费者都觉得公司竞争对手的产品更时尚,因此不妨找两个名人,给公司做产品代言,get some celebrity endorsements, 但选择的名人一定要带有反叛色彩,让用户觉得我们的产品有个性化,individuality. Frank 还建议,眼下的产品包装有些呆板,a little drab, 可以考虑变化一下。Lisa说:

L: Yes, we could redesign our packaging. But on the other hand, there is a recent trend to move away from excessive packaging. You know...to help save the environment.

F: That's another way we could go. We could reduce our packaging, and then advertise our environmentallyfriendly business policies. Being"green" is definitely cool these days. Perhaps environmentallyfriendly packaging would appeal to a younger customer demographic.

Lisa说,如今的趋势是放弃过度包装,实现包装简单化,因为这样做有利环保 environmentallyfriendly. Frank觉得Lisa说得有道理,公司在包装上可以走环保路线,用环保的新思维来吸引年轻客户群,appeal to 是吸引的意思,demographic is spelled demographic, demographic 在这里指的是消费人群中的一部分。

A: Lisa和Frank谈起了如何改进公司的运营情况,Frank说,公司需要 carve a niche in the market, 在市场中找到属于自己的一块地方,get some celebrity endorsement, 找名人给公司代言,而且可以use environmentallyfriendly packing, 包装更加环保化。

B: Yanglin, didn’t you study business for your graduate degree?

A: 没错啊!

B: So in your opinion, what are the best ways to boost a business?

A: Oh there are a lot of ways, streamline the production line, cutting labor costs, and better advertisement, etc. Overall there are two major things: cutting costs, and improving exposure to the public.

B: Well, what can I say, sounds like all that money in graduate school tuition wasn’t wasted!

A:那当然! 现在咱们接着来听听Lisa和Frank的讨论吧!

礼节美语BE234 Boosting Sales II

公司副总裁Lisa找到销售部经理Frank,商量如何提高产品销量。

Lisa: What about our pricing? Are we competitive?

Frank: Actually, we are roughly 15% more expensive than our closest competitors. But it's going to be hard to cut costs any further, seeing as we are already operating on a very slim margin.

L: There're always ways to cut costs, we just have to think outside the box. Perhaps we should consider relocating one of our factories to a more costefficient country.

F: We can also talk to our vendors about where they place our products. Perhaps if they're placed in a more prominent location in stores, they'll catch the eye of more customers.

在价格方面,Frank说,他们的产品比竞争对手高出大约15%, 但要想进一步削减成本,恐怕很难,因为他们本来就没有多少利润,we're already operating on a very slim margin. Lisa说,要降低成本,一定有办法,必须 think outside the box 用创造性思维,比如考虑把工厂迁到成本更低廉的地方去。Frank说,也可以看看,销售商能否把产品放在商店里更显眼的地方,catch the eye of more customers.吸引更多顾客的注意。

L: Would it help if we offered a mega sale to clear out some of our inventory? We might not make a lot of money, but we might gain some brand awareness.

F: That's a great idea. Getting people talking about our brand would be a big boost.

L: Are we harnessing the power of social network websites?

F: What do you mean?

L: I mean like setting up a Facebook page or using Twitter. It's free to get online and set up an account. We might as well take advantage of these opportunities.

Lisa 建议清仓甩卖,增加 brand awareness 品牌知名度。此外也不能忽视社交网站的力量。We should harness the power of social network websites. harness is spelled harness, harness 是驾驭的意思。Lisa说,公司可以在Facebook脸谱网和Twitter推特网上开帐户,免费利用这些网站做宣传。Lisa继续说,

L: Another idea is for us to reevaluate where we are spending our advertising dollar.

F: Right now, we break it down between all the major media outlets. Television advertising gets 45% of our budget, 30% goes to print media, 20% goes to radio and 5% goes towards advertising online.

L: I think we should boost our online advertising. Online ads are cheap and they can reach a much wider audience.

F: All right, I'll ask the ad department to make the changes.

L: If we can implement these new ideas by the end of this quarter, we might be able to reverse our sales slide and put ourselves in position for a major rebound come next year.

F: That would be great.

Lisa还主张在advertising dollar广告开支的分配上进行调整,增加互联网广告投入,因为在网上做广告不仅便宜,而且能 reach a much wider audience 能让更多的人看到。她说,如果能在这个季度结束前把这些措施落实的话,公司就可能reverse our sales slide扭转销售量下滑的趋势,为明年销量翻身做准备。

A: 没错!增加brand awareness品牌知名度是最重要的!一旦树立了品牌,卖什么都好卖!

B: Yeah I agree. If people trust a brand, they will think whatever products that particular brand has deserves every dollar they spend.

A: Exactly. 哎,你刚提到了deserve这个词儿,正好是今天我们Learn a word要教的!

B: And let’s listen!

Learn A Word 1689 deserve

今天我们要学的词是deserve. Deserve is spelled deserve, deserve. Deserve 应该得到。All workers deserve fair treatment and respect in the workplace. 在工作场所,所有人都应该得到公平的对待和尊重。You deserve some time off after all the long hours you put in. 你加班加点的,真是应该好好休息一下了。The coach deserves a lot of credit for taking the team all the way to the playoffs. 球队能一路打进季后赛,教练功不可没。兰斯.阿姆斯特朗承认使用禁药并表示道歉。Do you think he deserves another chance? 你觉得应该再给他一次机会吗?好的,今天我们学习的词是 deserve, deserve, deserve...

A: Hear it? Everyone deserves respect at the work place. Mike,you need to show me some respect! Stop eating all my food!

B: What? You are the one who always want to lose weight, so I’m just trying to help you on your quest!

A: Ugh I know… Like last night for dessert, I was debating between chocolate ice cream and strawberry cheese cake, finally I chose the lesser of two evils…

B: Hahaha, well, you should have brought me along. I could have eaten for you! What is it, cheese cake? Oh I love Cheese cake!

A: 好,下次打电话叫你来吃。

B:But you did just mention a very good term: lesser of two evils. Let's listen to today's words and idioms and check it out!

Words and Idioms 824 LESSER OF TWO EVILS

美国习惯用语第 824讲

如果你去住旅店,只有两个房间可供选择,一个在电梯旁边,另外一个在饮料自动贩卖机旁边,你挑哪个?要是我的话,我肯定挑选饮料自动贩卖机旁边的那个,虽然不时会有人来买东西,但起码不会象电梯口那么吵。在英语里,有一种说法叫,

M: The lesser of two evils. Lesser is spelled lesser, and evils; evils. Thelesseroftwoevils. The lesser of two evils. Evil 是邪恶的意思,lesser 意思是比较小的,次要的。说 The lesser of two evils 就是说在两种令人不快的选择中,选择一个伤害相对小的,也就是中文里说的两害相权取其轻。所以说,一个房间在饮料自动贩卖机旁边,另外一个在电梯口旁边,我宁可选择在饮料贩卖机旁边的那个,这就是两害相权取其轻 The lesser of two evils。好在我随身带了一副耳塞。

不过,下面例子里这个新娘子可就没有我这么幸运了。让我们听听新郎官是怎么说,

M: "My inlaws insisted that my wife choose one her sisters as her maid of honor. She could have asked Marilyn, but she isn't dependable at all. So she picked Ann, THE LESSER OF TWO EVILS. She may be rather unsociable, but, at least, she could be relied upon to help out with arrangements and be on time."

我丈母娘和老丈人坚持要我妻子在她的妹妹里选一个当伴娘。她本来可以请玛里琳来当,可是她太靠不住了,思前想后,我妻子最后挑选了 Ann,Ann 虽然不怎么喜欢跟人搭讪,但至少还能指望她帮忙做一些婚礼的安排,而且知道她会准时出现。

难怪有人要跑到拉斯维加斯去结婚,这样能省掉不少麻烦!那天女儿问我,在无糖但是带有化学成分的健怡可乐,和含有很多糖分的普通可乐,哪个是 the lesser of two evils. 我想了半天,最后告诉她,还是喝水最健康。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "My inlaws insisted that my wife choose one her sisters as her maid of honor. She could have asked Marilyn, but she isn't dependable at all. So she picked Ann, THE LESSER OF TWO EVILS. She may be rather unsociable, but, at least, she could be relied upon to help out with arrangements and be on time."

美国大选前,很多选民都觉得,在民主、共和两党的候选人里,没有任何一个让他们感到满意,我的邻居约翰就持这种看法。让我们一起听听他是怎么说的。
M: "There doesn't seem to be much choice in the upcoming election. Both candidates lack experience and leadership skills. I guess I'll have to vote for the one who promises not to raise taxes. He's THE LESSER OF TWO EVILS."

在即将举行的选举中,好像没有什么选择。两个候选人都缺少经验和领导才能。我最后可能还是会把票投给保证不增收个人所得税的那个候选人,两害相权取其轻嘛!

如今经济不景气,很多以前从来没有考虑过的问题现在都变得格外现实了。昨天还有一个同事问我,在减少工资和不减少工资,但是增加工作小时数二者之间选择哪个。换句话说,which is the lesser of two evils? 我一时还真答不上来,这里面涉及了太多的因素,包括我的生活开销、以及时间对我有多重要等等。好的,我们再听一下上面的例句。

M: "There doesn't seem to be much choice in the upcoming election. Both candidates lack experience and leadership skills. I guess I'll have to vote for the one who promises not to raise taxes. He's THE LESSER OF TWO EVILS."

THE LESSER OF TWO EVILS 这个习惯用语的历史非常悠久,最早来自古希腊,从十四世纪末开始在英语里出现。十九世纪一篇非常著名的短篇小说“美女还是老虎”,就是要在“两害”中权衡利弊,做出选择。你可能会问,evil? 美女怎么会是祸害呢?如果读过这个故事,你就会明白了。

好的,这次美国习惯用语就到此结束了。

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: Working with you or finishing all the work by myself…I guess I have to choose the lesser of two evils. I know I’m stuck with you…(sigh)

B: You think you have it bad? I either have to work with you or be out of a job! Life is so unfair……..

A: You may be out of a job anyways for that comment! 好了同学们,这次节目时间就到这里了。

B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!
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