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中国时间: 04:50 2016年12月03日星期六

美语训练班第105课

  • 美国之音

A: 欢迎大家来到这期的美语训练班! 我是杨琳!

B: 我是Mike! 杨琳,来告诉大家今天都要学什么!

A: 好! 今天,我们要一起来聊聊戒烟有什么好方法,看看不同工作场合的着装要求,还要告诉你怎么说得寸进尺!

B: I feel like the dress code in DC is just formal. I see suits everywhere...

A: 没错! 每天一上地铁都一片黑压压! 好了西装男, 咱们言归正传,先来进入第一个单元...

B: Learn a word!

Learn A Word 1719 hallmark

今天我们要学的词是 hallmark. Hallmark is spelled h-a-l-l-m-a-r-k, hallmark. Hallmark 意思是特点,标志。A strong defense has always been the hallmark for our team. 我们球队最大的特点是防守能力强。Personalized customer service has been our hallmark for over 20 years. 贴心的顾客服务20多年来始终是我们的特色。Renewable technology development has been the hallmark for Steven Chu's tenure as the U.S. Secretary of Energy. 朱棣文在任美国能源部长期间,政策核心一直是可再生能源的开发。 好的,今天我们学习的词是 hallmark, hallmark, hallmark...

A: 看看美国推广可持续能源,我真羡慕! 这次回北京,每天都是雾霾天,想想小时候的蓝天,真让人沮丧!

B: Yeah, you should not develop your economy at the cost of the environment! It took London 40 years to fix its fog problem, I hope Beijing can fix it soon...

A: I don't know. It seems like we are pushing our luck. I really want the old Beijing back....the blue sky and the fresh air, you don't even need air conditioning in the summer!

B: We'll keep our fingers crossed! But you just mention an idiom, push one's luck, let's check it out!

Words and Idioms 831 Push One's Luck

美国习惯用语第831讲

我先生牙不好,但又特别不喜欢去看牙医。前不久,他补过的一颗牙里的填料掉了出来,我劝他赶紧去找牙医修补,这不,一个月过去了,他还是没给牙医打电话预约。或许现在那颗牙并不疼,不过,谁都知道,这是迟早的事。这让我想起了今天要学的习惯用语,叫

M: Push one's luck. Push is spelled p-u-s-h, and luck; l-u-c-k. Push-one's-luck.

大家都知道,动词 push 是推的意思,Luck 是运气。Push one's luck 这个习惯用语的意思就是,有点儿运气就得寸进尺,贪心不足。就说我先生吧,牙里的填料掉了,但是牙却不疼,够幸运的吧?但是他却得寸进尺,不赶紧去找牙医修补,这就叫 push his luck.

我早上开车,路上听了一个关于汽车保养的节目。主持人念了一封听众寄来的电子邮件,让我们一起听听看。

M: "Every time I get my oil changed, the mechanic reminds me to bring the car back in another 3,000 miles. Now I see that I've driven almost 8,000 more miles and still haven't had any problem. Do you think I'm PUSHING MY LUCK? Or do I really need to get my car serviced again?"

这位听众在信中说:每次我去换机油,车铺的人都提醒我,每开三千英里就要来换一次机油。可是现在我都开了八千英里了,车子还好好的,没有出现任何问题。你觉得我这样做是贪心不足吗?我是不是真地需要把车隍7d到修车行去保养呢?

要让我说,这个人绝对是在 push his luck。车子的定期保养是绝对不能放松的,车子跟人一样,人要吃好睡好锻炼好才能长寿,车子也要定期检查,保养才能长期给你服务,否则坏了,又要去修,更得不偿失。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "Every time I get my oil changed, the mechanic reminds me to bring the car back in another 3,000 miles. Now I see that I've driven almost 8,000 more miles and still haven't had any problem. Do you think I'm PUSHING MY LUCK? Or do I really need to get my car serviced again?"

刚才我们说到,车子要定期保养,如果本应三千英里换一次机油,结果开到八千英里还不去的话,就是在 push your luck。老实说,我也犯过类似的错误。那天我鞋的后跟掉了,我就自己粘了回去,打算坚持两天,周末有时间拿去修。我得意洋洋地穿着去上班,结果上班的路上鞋跟又掉了下来,害我当众出丑。我当时唯一的想法是,I shouldn't have pushed my luck. 在下面这个例子中,一群登山爱好者要做出一项十分艰难的选择。让我们一起听听看。

M: "My friend and I had planned this climb for months. And there we were, almost to the top.

But the sun was going down on us. Did we want to try and hurry? We decided not to PUSH OUR LUCK and risk an accident. After all, the mountain could wait until morning."

其中一个人说:我跟朋友们策划这次行动已经好几个月了,眼看就要到山顶的时候,偏偏太阳下山了。我们要决定,是否继续攀登,但是大家最后决定,还是不要挺而走险,可以等到早上,以免发生事故。

英语里有一句常说的话,叫 better safe than sorry,意思是宁可加倍小心,也要比发生意外好。还好这些登山爱好者比较明智,没有 push their luck, 否则发生意外,后悔就完了。好的,我们再听一下上面的例句。

M: "My friend and I had planned this climb for months. And there we were, almost to the top. But the sun was going down on us. Did we want to try and hurry? We decided not to PUSH OUR LUCK and risk an accident. After all, the mountain could wait until morning."

Push one's luck 这个习惯用语可以追溯到二十世纪,也有人说得更简单,就叫 push it. 我可以说,我先生不赶紧去看牙医,是在 push it. 我没有及时去修鞋,也是在 push it. 看来,我们大家都有这种时候。

好的,这次美国习惯用语就到此结束了。

M: This has been Words and Idioms. Until next time.

我们下次节目再见。

A: Yeah, I always push my luck when it comes to dental problems...I will think it's just a small cavity that could be fixed in a heartbeat, but it always turns out to be a bigger problem.

B: Exactly. You need to fix any health problems as soon as possible, otherwise you don't know what's going to happen. You just got to nip it in the bud.

A: 没错,消灭在萌芽状态。

B: Actually in today's business etiquette, we are going to talk about a thing that can affect your health, smoking. Let's get some tips about how to quit smoking!

礼节美语 BE-231 Quit Smoking I

Daisy在公司走廊上跟同事Johnny打招呼。

Daisy: Hey Johnny, good to see you! How have you been? I haven't seen you in almost a month.

Johnny: Eleven days, six hours, 21 minutes, and let me see....twenty something seconds.

D: Umm....eleven what?

J: Eleven days since my last cigarette!

D: Hey...good for you! High five!

Daisy将近一个月没见到Johnny,Johnny在这期间把烟戒了,戒烟已经持续了 eleven days, six hours, 21 minutes, and twenty something seconds. 11天6小时21分钟20几秒。Daisy对Johnny表示赞扬,说 good for you! 有你的。这时候女同事Kathy凑了过来。

Kathy: Good afternoon. What are we celebrating?

D: Johnny here has been trying to quit cigarettes for years!

J: And today I'm almost 2 weeks into my program!

K: Wow, congratulations! I quit 10 years ago, but then again, I was never really a serious smoker.

D: Johnny here was a three-pack-a-day man!

K: You smoked three packs a day??! That's some hard-core smoking! So...It must have been very difficult to quit.

J: Well, I've only been smoke-free for 11 days so I can't pat myself on the back too much. But yes, it has been really tough...probably the hardest thing I've ever done in my life.

Kathy说自己是十年前戒的烟,但戒烟前其实抽得也不是很多,I was never a serious smoker. 这一点跟 Johnny 比大不一样,Johnny原来每天抽三盒,He was a three-pack-a-day man. 英文里根据抽烟的多少,可以分为 social smoker 偶尔抽着玩的人;light smoker 烟瘾不大的人;heavy smoker 烟瘾很大的人,还有 chain smoker 一根接一根抽的人,Johnny显然就是这种人,a hard-core smoker 铁杆烟民。Johnny说,自己刚刚戒了11天,还不能 pat myself on the back 自满。to pat oneself on the back 是自我表扬,自我鼓励的意思。 Daisy说,

D: I quit cold turkey, and that was pretty darn hard.

J: Quitting smoking takes a lot of willpower, but these days a lot of help is available if you look for it.

K: My uncle tried hypnosis. A specialist tried to hypnotize him to give him the suggestion that he should stop smoking.

J: Did it work?

K: He quit for a few months, but then he fell back into his old habit.

D: A lot of my friends have tried nicotine patches. Nicotine is an addictive drug and when you quit using it, you get seriously grumpy. Sometimes a patch can help reduce nicotine cravings.

戒烟需要毅力,It takes a lot of willpower. Daisy说自己当年说不抽就不抽了,to quit something cold turkey. 意思是干净利落地戒掉某种习惯。Kathy说,她叔叔曾尝试过hypnosis催眠,hypnosis is spelled h-y-p-n-o-s-i-s, hypnosis, 动词是 hypnotize, h-y-p-n-o-t-i-z-e, 但是只坚持了几个月,就又fell back into his old habit 重新捡起了旧习惯。Daisy说,他很多朋友都用 nicotine patches 尼古丁贴片,减少身体对尼古丁的 cravings, cravings 指强烈愿望,在这是指对尼古丁的瘾头。戒烟还有其他什么好办法呢?我们下次继续听。

A: Johnny是个铁杆烟民,a hard-core smoker, 原来每天都要抽三包。Daisy说,她当年戒烟,说不抽就不抽了,quit smoking cold turkey。Johnny觉得戒烟确实很难,it takes a lot of willpower, 需要很大的毅力。

B:Yeah definitely. Once your body is addicted to nicotine, it's pretty hard to get it out of your system.

A: 我爷爷原来就是铁杆烟民,不过啊我天天在他的烟上写吸烟有害,现在呢,他每天抽三根,也算是戒烟成功一半了!

B: It's always a good thing to have support from family and friends. Daisy is advising Johnny to participate in a therapy group so he can get support from people just like him. Let's keep listening!

礼节美语 BE-232 Quit Smoking II

Daisy和Kathy听说同事Johnny戒烟,很替他高兴。Kathy问Johnny是怎么戒的。

K: What's worked so far?

J: Well, for starters, I saw a doctor who specializes in helping people quit smoking. The doctor recommended a therapy group that meets twice a week.

D: So everyone in the group is trying to quit smoking?

J: yep...we were all in the same boat. We have a buddy system....if we need help, we call each other.

K: That's really great!

J: Also, the doctor recommended getting some exercise so I started doing some cycling. I could barely make it down the street for the first couple of days, but now I'm riding as much as 10 kilometers!

原来,Johnny专门找了个医生,指导他如何戒烟,医生建议他加入一个 therapy group 治疗小组,小组成员都是想戒烟的烟民,同病相怜,they were all in the same boat. in the same boat是一个很常用的短语,意思是处境相同。另外,医生还建议Johnny锻炼身体,骑自行车。

D: When you quit smoking you also have to change your lifestyle. I had to stop drinking too much beer, because when I drank, it made me want to smoke. I started eating more fruits and vegetables and I cut down on red meat.

K: Yeah, that makes sense. Change your diet...change your lifestyle...start a new you!

J: So far the toughest time is when I'm hanging out with friends in clubs, bars or KTVs.

D: I guess you'll just have to chew a lot of gum.

J: Yeah...the doctor told me to keep my mouth and hands busy! Chew gum, drink water, whistle, draw, hold a pencil...just try to distract my mind.

Daisy说,戒烟的一部分是要改变生活习惯,比如他自己,原来爱喝啤酒,一喝啤酒就自然而然地想抽烟,所以为了戒烟他索性连酒也少喝了,开始多吃蔬菜水果,并且 cut down on red meat. 少吃红肉。to cut down on something 是减少的意思,red meat 红肉,包括猪肉,牛肉,羊肉等,跟 red meat 相对的是鸡肉和鱼肉等 white meat. Johnny说,最痛苦的时候是跟朋友到夜总会和酒吧那种地方去,周围抽烟喝酒的人太多,诱惑太大,医生曾建议他,不要让自己的嘴和手闲着,嚼口香糖,喝水,吹口哨,或者干脆手里拿根笔,都行。

K: I applaud your efforts to quit! I'm sure you'll be much happier in the long run.

D: Yeah...a couple of years from now, you look back and wonder how you could've ever been a smoker!

J: I hope so...because it's been pretty tough.

D: Don't worry; there is a light at the end of the tunnel!

K: Keep up the good work!

J: Thanks, guys!

最后,Kathy 和Daisy都鼓励Johnny一定要坚持,Daisy说,there is a light at the end of the tunnel. 隧道尽头能看到光明,类似中文里说的曙光就在前面。

A: 戒掉不好的习惯就靠毅力! 戒烟戒酒都是一样。

B: Yep, the key is to be persistent. It applies to everything.

A: 万事开头难! 接下去就好了。Speaking of which, I think it's time that you should start working on your sweets addiction...

B: Meh, I also exercise everyday, unlike......some people!

A: 哈! 算了,不跟你贫! 咱们现在再来学个词儿!

Learn A Word 1720 dress code

今天我们要学的词是 dress code. dress is spelled d-r-e-s-s, dress, code, c-o-d-e, code, dress code. Dress code 着装要求。Under Iran's Islamic dress code, women are required to cover their entire body in public. 根据伊朗的伊斯兰教着装要求,妇女在公共场合必须把身体遮盖得严严实实的。美国伊利诺伊州一个学生因为身穿美国海军陆战队T恤衫,T恤衫上画着两支枪的图案,被学校指责违反着装标准。The student's father asked the school district to reconsider its dress code after the incident. 事发后,学生父亲要求学校所在学区重新考虑对学生的着装要求。好的,今天我们学习的词是 dress code, dress code, dress code...

A: Yeah, different work places have different dress codes. I'm so glad we don't have any!

B:Yeah....I mean, I still want to dress up for work though. I feel like when I'm dressed in business professional clothes I'm more productive. Dressing the part really makes a difference.

A: Yeah, that's true. If I'm wearing something casual, I feel like I should be outside exploring the city....

B: Haha, we will have plenty of opportunities for that this weekend! Now let's move on to our last segment of the day!

A: 来听今天的美国习惯用语, Make a dent in!

Words and Idioms 832 Make a Dent in

美国习惯用语第 832讲

第一次用信用卡的人,都会觉得,这简直太方便了,身上不用带现金,就能想买什么就买什么。可以别忘了,刷卡也是花钱,银行帐户里要有足够的存款,账单来的时候才不会陷入被动。我侄女就是,第一次有了自己的信用卡,兴奋得忘乎所以,结果付不起账单,欠了信用卡公司很多钱,只好节衣缩食,用了整整一年的时间,才慢慢还上。这让我想起了今天要学的习惯用语,叫

M: Make a dent in. Dent is spelled d-e-n-t. Make-a-dent-in. Make a dent in.

名词 dent 在中文里是凹痕的意思。Make a dent in something 这个习惯用语的意思就是取得初步进展。从刚才我侄女的信用卡的例子里,我们就能看到,要还清信用卡债务,有多困难。It is very difficult to make a dent in credit card debt. 所以一定不能大意。

生病总是难免的,特别是冬天。大家可能都有过类似经历,在家歇几天病假,回去上班时,会发现很多工作都在等着自己处理。让我们听听下面例子里这个可怜人是怎么说的。

M: "After being home with the flu for a week, I finally returned to the office. I can't believe how much I missed. I've already spent two days trying to catch up on the pile of paperwork on my desk. But I've barely MADE A DENT IN it. There's still a lot more I need to do."

这个人抱怨说:我因为流感在家歇了一星期的病假,真没想到短短一个星期,会积累下这么多工作。我花了整整两天的时间,处理桌子上堆积如山的文件,但是好象一点也不见少,还是有一大堆需要处理。

我特别理解他的感受。前不久我去墨西哥渡了一个星期的假,没带电脑。结果回来后,信箱里积累了好几百封电子邮件,我整整用了一个晚上的时间,才基本上处理完毕。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "After being home with the flu for a week, I finally returned to the office. I can't believe how much I missed. I've already spent two days trying to catch up on the pile of paperwork on my desk. But I've barely MADE A DENT IN it. There's still a lot more I need to do."

每年圣诞节前夕,商店里都会拥挤不堪,大家都要给亲朋好友购买礼物。对于很多人来说,这是一件躲不过去的头疼事儿,但是下面这个顾客好象却很有成就感。让我们一起听听这是为什么。

M: "I come from a large family, so I have many people to buy for at Christmas. I'm usually rushing around in stores until the last minute, but this year is different. I'm really MAKING A DENT in my shopping list. Now I only have to pick up a few more presents and then I'll be ready."

这个人说:我来自一个大家庭,圣诞节要给很多人买礼物。往年我都要等到最后一分钟才匆忙跑到店里去采购,但是今年不同,购物清单上的很多东西都已经买齐了。如今只剩下几件东西,我就万事大吉了。
真是好样的,加油!

最近,我们那个社区突然出现了很多胡乱涂鸦,破坏公物的情况。虽然警察局增派警力,加强巡逻,但丝毫没有改善。It hasn't made a dent in it. 好的,我们再听一下上面的例句。

M: "I come from a large family, so I have many people to buy for at Christmas. I'm usually rushing around in stores until the last minute, but this year is different. I'm really MAKING A DENT in my shopping list. Now I only have to pick up a few more presents and then I'll be ready."

有些事情不能操之过急。比如说,我女儿念书的那所学校里,去年学生□c读考试的成绩普遍下降。校长决定使用一套新教材。整整花了一年的时间,The teachers finally made a dent in test scores. 老师们终于帮助学生提高了考核的成绩。

好的,这次美国习惯用语就到此结束了。虽然英语里有成千上万的习惯用语,但是日积月累,必能滴水穿石。I am sure you are making a dent in them.

M: This has been Words and Idioms. Until next time.

我们下次节目再见。

A: I think all that running has worked Mike! I see you are making a dent in losing your beer belly!

B: Why thank you 杨琳! When you are ready to make a dent in those love handles you are free to come with me!

A:.....好了同学们,这次节目时间就到这里了。

B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!
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