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中国时间: 20:00 2016年12月03日星期六

美语训练班第112课

  • 美国之音

A: 欢迎大家来到这期的美语训练班! 我是杨琳!

B: 我是Mike! 杨琳,来告诉大家今天都要学什么!

A: 嗯! 今天,我们要一起聊聊在跨国企业中如何应对不同的文化,看看如何表达毫无概念,还要告诉你如何说本能!

B: Yeah, I went through major culture shock when I first went to China! People kept asking me about my salary...I mean, we almost never ask someone about that in the West!

A: Yeah, money is an acceptable topic in daily conversation among some Asian cultures. It took me a good two years to get used to American customs as well. First of all, hugging! Americans love to hug, but it kinda creeps me out!

B: (laughing) we'll run out of time for the show if we keep on talking about this. Why don't we start our class first, and then we will discuss some more cultural differences later in the show!

A: 好主意! 同学们,我们赶快先来进入第一个单元,Learn a word!

Learn A Word 1777 instinct

今天我们要学的词是instinct. Instinct is spelled i-n-s-t-i-n-c-t, instinct. Instinct 是本能,直觉的意思。Survival instinct 生存本能。Animal instinct 动物本能。The offer was too good to be true. My instincts told me it must be a scam. 这事好得简直令人难以置信,我的直觉告诉我,这一定是个骗局。龙卷风来袭之前,奥克拉荷马州的一个妈妈毅然决定,不让孩子藏在衣橱里,开车出去避难,结果幸免于难,回来时房子已被夷为平地。Her maternal instincts saved her kids and herself. 她的母性直觉救了孩子的命,也救了她自己的命。好的,今天我们学习的词是 instinct, instinct, instinct...

A: I got to say, sometimes your instincts are the best thing you can rely on.

B: I mean, you are a good judge of character, so your gut feeling about a person is usually right. But for me....it's a different story.

A: Well, that's why we are friends! I can always help you out, for a small fee!

B: Ahh...I was wondering when the real Yang Lin was going to come out...

A: Haha, actually, there's only one rule to judging character: when something seems too good to be true, it must be fake or a scam. It applies to both things and people.

B: Yeah, I guess...I just have a very trusting personality! I always choose to look on the bright side and trust others!

A: OKOK...let's stop this overflow of self-esteem . 我们赶快从吹牛大王这逃走,接着来听美国习惯用语吧!

Words and Idioms 845 NOT KNOW BEANS

(sound effect: tweet, tweet).

大家肯定都听过鸟叫,英语里形容鸟叫的相声词是 tweet, t-w-e-e-t, tweet. 你知道吗,现在有个网站叫 twitter, 可以用电脑或是手机在上面发送字数不超过140个字的短信。我也是最近才从年轻同事那里知道这个网站的,但还是不知道具体怎么操作。今天我们要学的习惯用语恰恰可以用来形容这种情况,那就是:

M: Not know beans about. Beans is spelled b-e-a-n-s. Not-know-beans-about. Not know beans about.

说一个人NOT KNOW BEANS ABOUT一件事情,意思就是对一件事情一无所知,毫无概念。就拿我来说吧,如果你让我上网 tweet 你,那我简直就是丈二和尚摸不着头脑,因为 I do NOT KNOW BEANS ABOUT it.

奥巴马夫妇入主白宫后,第一夫人米歇尔多次成为头版新闻。就在前不久,她在白宫开垦了一个菜园子。让我们听听下面这篇报道是怎么说的。

M: "First Lady Michelle Obama recently started a vegetable garden at the White House. It's a reflection of the many gardens that are sprouting up in backyards across the county. Even Americans who doN'T KNOW BEANS ABOUT farming are trying it. Soon enough these absolute beginners are enjoying their own delicious and healthy produce."

报道说:第一夫人米歇尔•奥巴马最近在白宫开了个菜园。眼下,这样的菜园子在全美各地象雨后春笋一样纷纷出现。就连对种植一窍不通的美国人也跃跃欲试。没过多久,这些初次“务农”的人就能尝到自己种出来的可口健康的水果和蔬菜了。

我和老公就是从去年开始种菜的,去年第一次尝试,We did NOT KNOW BEANS ABOUT IT. 所以只种了西红柿、黄瓜和韭菜,结果大丰收。你别说,自己种的菜味道就是不一样,又有利环保,绝对是一举两得。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "First Lady Michelle Obama recently started a vegetable garden at the White House. It's a reflection of the many gardens that are sprouting up in backyards across the county. Even Americans who doN'T KNOW BEANS ABOUT farming are trying it. Soon enough these absolute beginners are enjoying their own delicious and healthy produce."

常听人说,爱情可以战胜一切,真是这样吗?听听下面这个例子,你就会得出答案。

M: "When Brenda was first introduced to Jack, she was intimidated by his knowledge. When it came to his field, astrophysics, she frankly didN'T KNOW BEANS. But over several dates, she fell in love with his enthusiasm for galaxies and electromagnetism. It's amazing how much she understands now."

这个人说:布兰达第一次经人介绍跟杰克认识的时候,杰克的博学多才让她有些无地自容。对于杰克研究的天文物理学,布兰达可以说是一无所知。但是几次约会下来,她就被杰克对宇宙和电磁的热情折服了。现在她懂得越来越多,简直不可思议。

有趣的是,NOT KNOW BEANS 的另外一种说法是 NOT KNOW JACK. 因此,在上面这个例子里,我们可以说,对于天文物理学,Branda doesn't know Jack. 这里的 Jack 指的就不是 Jack 这个人了。好的,我们再来听一下上面那个例句。

M: "When Brenda was first introduced to Jack, she was intimidated by his knowledge. When it came to his field, astrophysics, she frankly didN'T KNOW BEANS. But over several dates, she fell in love with his enthusiasm for galaxies and electromagnetism. It's amazing how much she understands now."

大家也许会问,为什么要说 beans 豆子呢?或许恰恰是因为豆子小,微不足道吧。这个习惯用语早在十九世纪早期就已经出现了,一直沿用到今天。

好的,这次美国习惯用语就到此结束了。

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: Modern technology has been developing so fast. I remember just a year ago, when my friends introduced me to wechat, no one knew beans about it. But today everyone in China is using it!

B: That's true. All this modern technology makes the world a smaller place. International businesses is everywhere now!

A: True. But it's also a big challenge to understand how all these different cultures interact in the business world, and in your daily life.

B: In today's business etiquette, we will get some tips about how to interact with your customers from different countries! Let's check it out!

礼节美语Cross-Cultural SensitivityPart I

Jim 和 Emily 是一家跨国公司从中国聘用的新雇员,公司人事部的 Paula 对他们进行文化差异的培训。

Paula: Hello and good morning. I'm Paula Higgins and I've been asked to help prep all of you for your new positions.
J&E: Good morning.

P: Well, let's get right down to business, shall we? Each of you will be traveling to business meetings, attending fairs and exhibitions as well as receiving clients from abroad. It's therefore very important that you make a good impression. Let's start with how to greet people.

Paula自我介绍后,马上展开培训 get right down to business. Paula 说的,to prep someone for his or her new position 指就职前的培训。做为跨国公司雇员,要经常出去开会,参展,接待外国客户,因此给别人的第一印象很重要。It's important to make a good impression.

P: Yes, Emily?

E: Why do some Europeans kiss each other when they say hello? I've even seen men kiss each other!

P: Yes, in some places in Europe such as France, people do give each other a light kiss on the cheek. It's considered friendly and is not sexual in any way.

J: But Americans wouldn't do that, would they?

P: No, it's highly unlikely that an American would offer a kiss.

欧洲人见面喜欢在脸颊上蜻蜓点水地亲一下,a light kiss on the cheek. 那美国人呢?Paula 说,It's highly unlikely that an American would offer a kiss. 就是说美国人几乎绝对不可能这样做。

J: But Americans seem to like to hug each other frequently.

P: That's true. In recent years it has become more popular to hug. But usually it's people who have met before and perhaps haven't seen each other in a while that might hug. At a first meeting, a hug would be very unlikely.

E: Hugs kind of creep me out! I don't really like to be touched by strangers.

美国人似乎很喜欢拥抱。Paula 解释说,其实,只有很久不见的熟人才会彼此拥抱,初次见面一般不会。Emily 说自己不喜欢陌生人碰她。Hugs kind of creep me out! 拥抱让她浑身不自在。

P: Fair enough. I'd say hugging is not usually appropriate in a business situation. Some people are a bit overly friendly. But if the person initiates it, I'd recommend you grit your teeth and go along with it, otherwise people might think you are rude.

J: So the same rule would apply to getting a kiss from a European: if they initiate it, just go along and be friendly, right?

P: Yes. As the saying goes: "When in Rome, do as the Romans do." In other words: follow the local customs.

Paula 也承认,拥抱并不适合商业场合,但有些人确实会 overly friendly 过份友好。在这种情况下,她建议员工 to grit your teeth and go along with it. 咬咬牙,硬着头皮去应和。 grit is spelled g-r-i-t. 常言说,When in Rome, do as the Romans do. 入乡随俗。

A: Paula说,欧洲人喜欢a light kiss on the cheek, 见面时行亲吻礼,而美国人呢则更习惯hug,拥抱。她说,有些人确实over friendly,过于热情,但是如果是在商业场合,you have to grit your teeth and go along with it, 得咬咬牙,硬着头皮去迎合。

B: Yep, when in Rome, do as the Romans do.

A: 没错! 入乡随俗。So Mike, what was the biggest culture shock you encountered when you were in China?

B: That would have to be how Chinese girls behave around each other. You know, Chinese girls like to walk hand in hand, or feed each other food, etc. In America, girls would NEVER, EVER do that unless they are a couple. So...that always confused me until a friend set me straight.

A: 没错没错! 这倒是真的! 而且啊,东西方文化中还有很多谈话的禁忌也是不同的。我们接着来听Paula是怎么说的!

礼节美语Cross-Cultural SensitivityPart II

Jim 和 Emily 是一家跨国公司从中国聘用的新雇员,公司人事部的 Paula 对他们进行文化差异的培训。Emily 说,

E: I know that we will be expected to chat and make small talk with our customers, but I'm worried I'm going to put my foot in my mouth.

P: There are a couple of topics that are considered "no-nos" in Western culture. It's best to avoid discussions on politics, religion and money.

J: Why is religion a sensitive topic?

聊天儿,to chat, 也可以说 to make small talk. Emily 担心跟客户聊天的时候会 to put my foot in my mouth, 意思是说话不得体,讲错话。Paula 说,在西方文化中,确实有一些话题是 "no-nos" 最好不要涉及的领域,包括政治、宗教和金钱。宗教为什么是敏感话题?

P: Well, there are a lot of religions and each one thinks very differently. Overall, it's an area that could cause trouble; so it's best to stay away from it.

J: When I visited Italy last year, I noticed a sign at a church asking people to remove their hats. Why is this necessary?

P: In some religious centers it's considered impolite to wear hats. Many Western people also think you should remove your hat when dining or in a more formal setting.
Paula 解释说,不同宗教信仰的人,如果话不投机,就很容易出问题。So it's best to stay away from it. 所以最好远离这个话题。Jim 问,为什么意大利有的教堂要大家摘掉帽子。Paula 解释说,某些宗教认为戴帽子很不礼貌,it's considered impolite to wear hats, 而且在西方,正式场合和饭局一般都要把帽子摘下来。

J: You said money is off-limits as well. Can you explain?

P: In some parts of Asia, discussing salary amounts or how much you paid for something is an acceptable conversation topic, but in the West, people get very uncomfortable when discussing money.

E: That makes sense. Money can be a tricky subject.

金钱也是 off-limits 禁区。在亚洲某些地方,工资收入可以是聊天的话题,但是在西方,问别人赚多少钱,往往会让人觉得不舒服。所以说,Money can be a tricky subject.

P: Ok...a couple more important points: In some Asian societies, when you meet someone and you notice they have put on weight, you might say "Hey! You've gained weight!" But in the West, it's almost never appropriate to comment on someone's appearance.

J: But why? It's not a criticism; it's just an observation.

P: In the West it is viewed as a criticism. So don't comment on age or weight.

E: I think it's best to simply say, "You look well."

P: Yes....that would be perfect. Thank you all for your attention and we will meet again next week.

还有一点至关重要,见面千万别说,“你发福了!”That's a no-no. 西方人几乎从来不讨论别人的外表,还有年龄!Don't comment on age or weight.

A: Emily 担心跟客户聊天的时候会put my foot in my mouth,意思是说话不得体,Paula说,在聊天中,不要涉及宗教,金钱和政治,it's best to stay away from it. 而且don't comment on age or weight,不要评价别人的外表还有年龄。But...but I always comment when you gain any weight!

B: Yeah...now you know. It's considered very inappropriate in the western society.

A: But it's common to comment on other people's appearance in China! Like....you seemed to have put on a little bit of weight recently... Mike

B:You little...

A: Haha, its culture difference, so...you can't blame it on me! (B:Ugh...) (笑) 好了同学们,我们接着来听下面的learn a word!

Learn A Word 1779 runner-up

今天我们要学的词是runner-up. Runner is spelled r-u-n-n-e-r, runner, and up, u-p, up, runner-up. Runner-up 比赛里的第二名。Jason came in as the runner-up in the 200-meter hurdles. 詹森在200米跨栏中名列第二。在美国国家地理小蜜蜂比赛中,12-year-old Sathwik Karnik got all five questions right in his one-on-one duel with the runner-up to clinch the title. 12岁的卡尔尼克在跟亚军的一对一对决中,五道问题全部答对,赢得冠军头衔。American Idol Season 12 runner-up Kree Harrison says that she has no regrets about her time on the show. 美国偶像第12季亚军克里.哈里森说,参加这个节目的全过程,她没有一丝遗憾。好的,今天我们学习的词是 runner-up, runner-up, runner-up...

A: In the competition between you and me, You are always the runner-up Mike

B: Whoa, Whoa, Whoa...hold on Yang Lin. Remember that time when we had the "president of the show" election, and you just ignored the results because you lost? I still have the evidence....I think Someone's number is up!

A: Er...hmm....oh, you just mentioned a very good idiom, sb's number is up! Let's check it out first!

Words and Idioms 846 SB'S NUMBER IS UP

美国习惯用语第846讲

在美国,一到星期五,很多公司里的员工都会轮流带多纳圈到办公室,跟同事分享,我们办公室也不例外。老实说,我本人并不喜欢多纳圈,太甜,而且离我家最近的一家多纳圈专卖店开车二十分钟才能到,很不方便。你猜,明天轮到谁带多纳圈?没错,又轮到我了。这倒让我想起一个有趣的习惯用语,叫:

M: Somebody's number is up. Number is spelled n-u-m-b-e-r. Somebody's-number-is-up. Somebody's number is up.

Somebody's number is up 这个习惯用语的意思是气数已尽,要倒霉了。就好比我,虽然自己并不喜欢吃多纳圈,而且又要绕道去买,但是轮到我了,没办法,在这种情况下,就可以说 My number is up! 不过,跟下面例子里的这些人相比,我恐怕还算是幸运的。我们一起听下面这段话。

M: "We knew to expect another round of layoffs. So I had a bad feeling when my coworker got called in to meet with the boss. Sure enough, HIS NUMBER WAS UP. He and five other associates were given one hour to clean out their desks and turn in their office IDs. I'm just lucky I still have my position.

这个人说:我们都知道,还要裁一批人。所以,我的同事被老板叫去谈话,我就有一种很不好的预感。果不其然,轮到他倒霉了。他和另外五个人被要求在一个小时内整理好自己的东西,交还工作证件。我的运气还不错,至今还有工作。

现在经济不景气,谁都可能会丢饭碗。更糟糕的是,很多失业的人付不出房屋贷款,最后连房子都会被银行没收,我的一个朋友就担心,她老公如果在三个月内找不到新工作的话,THEIR NUMBER WILL BE UP,他们就要惨了。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "We knew to expect another round of layoffs. So I had a bad feeling when my coworker got called in to meet with the boss. Sure enough, HIS NUMBER WAS UP. He and five other associates were given one hour to clean out their desks and turn in their office IDs. I'm just lucky I still have my position.

不过,也不是所有人都这么倒霉。比如说我的邻居 Judy Allen 就刚刚当选连任了市议员。我们一起来听听下面这段政治评论:

M: "Judy Allen's reelection to the city council confirms that HER NUMBER ISN'T UP yet. It's true that she may have made some political enemies in her first term. But the majority of voters still felt she did a good job. And what they want now is to see her build on her success."

这个人说:Judy Allen 当选连任市议员说明,她的政治生涯还没有走到尽头。没错,她在第一个任期内确实树了一些政敌,但是大多数选民还是觉得她干得不错。他们希望她能在成功的基础上再接再励。

我的另外一个邻居可就没这么走运了。她儿子开车回家的路上跟一个醉酒开车的人撞上,结果车彻底报销,人也受了伤,在医院了躺了好几天。按我邻居的话说,现在马路上这么多危险驾驶的司机,You never know when YOUR NUMBER WILL BE UP. 谁也不知道什么时候会轮到自己倒霉。好的,我们再来听一下上面那个例句。

M: "Judy Allen's reelection to the city council confirms that HER NUMBER ISN'T UP yet. It's true that she may have made some political enemies in her first term. But the majority of voters still felt she did a good job. And what they want now is to see her build on her success."

大家也许会问,这个习惯用语是怎么来的呢?根据我的研究,这个习惯用语最早是十九世纪早期出现的,NUMBER 当时指的可能是没中的彩票上的数字。也有人说,Number 是指任何可以用来辨别某个人身份的数字,比如说美国军人脖子上挂的身份牌。

好的,这次美国习惯用语就到此结束了。

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

B: So...huh? I guess there is no point in competing with me when you are not even in the same league!

B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!
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