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中国时间: 01:28 2016年12月08日星期四

美语训练班第114课

  • 美国之音

A: 欢迎大家来到这期的美语训练班! 我是杨琳!

B: 我是Mike! 杨琳,来告诉大家今天都要学什么!

A: 好的! 今天,我们要一起来聊聊盗版光碟的危害,告诉你怎么说一见如故,还要看看美国受欢迎的以旧换新行业!

B: Pirated DVDs can really harm the movie industry. A good movie can take years and millions of dollars to finish! We should really respect the artists by buying legal copies.

A: Plus with the availability of digital versions today, the originals are actually quite affordable!

B: True. All right, let's go ahead and start our class.

A: 好!我们先来进入第一个单元: learn a word!

Learn A Word 1784 primary

今天我们要学的词是primary. Primary is spelled p-r-i-m-a-r-y, primary. Primary 主要的。美国的最新调查数字显示,A record four out of 10 households have mothers as the sole or primary source of income in the family. 在美国,每十个家庭里,就有四个家庭的唯一,或是主要收入来源是母亲工作赚来的,是美国历来的最高水平。美国人偏爱橄榄油。一项最新民意调查发现,According to 80 percent of the survey's respondents, flavor is the primary reason for people to select olive oil over other oils. 百分之八十的被调查对象都说,喜欢橄榄油的味道是他们在各种食用油中,更愿意选择橄榄油的主要原因。好的,今天我们学习的词是 primary, primary, primary...

A: Hmm....I can't really taste the difference between different kinds of cooking oil. I choose to use olive oil mostly for health reasons.

B: Well...that's because you are not a gourmet chef! Unlike me....(A: ugh...) OKOK. Olive oil is indeed a lot healthier compare to other kinds of cooking oil. I think I read somewhere that eating olive oil will lower your risk of heart disease and cholesterol levels.

A:Yep! Society has become a lot more health conscious these days. Remember the New York City Schools' ban on sugary drinks? What's your thoughts on that?

B: I mean, I'm pretty much on the sidelines. I don't think the government should limit people's choices on food, but at the same time better education would help people make healthier food choices!

A: 没错! 你刚才还提到了一个词儿: on the sidelines! Let's check it out in today's words and idioms!

Words and Idioms 849 ON THE SIDELINES

美国习惯用语第849讲

我妈妈和我妹妹昨天又吵了起来。妹妹说老妈看她哪都不顺眼,而老妈却说妹妹从来不听她的话。我知道,她们都想拉我帮忙,不过我可没那么傻,决不搅和进去,用我们今天要学的习惯用语来形容这种情况恰如其分,那就是:

M: On the sidelines. Sidelines is spelled s-id-e-l-i-n-e-s. On-the-sidelines. On the sidelines.

对体育感兴趣的人都知道,sidelines 就是中文里说的边线。站在边线以外,就是不参与比赛,在一旁观战的意思。我妈跟我妹吵架,把我夹在了中间,她们两个我谁也得罪不起,所以只好 stay on the sidelines 在一边观战。换成你是不是也会这样做呢?在下面这个例子中,一份报纸的读者为什么不愿意待在边线以外呢?让我们一起来听听。

M: "The owner of our newspaper said he may have to end production. That caused lots of us readers to form a coalition. Our goal is to persuade management that the publication can and should be saved. We realize how critical it is to get involved right now and not sit ON THE SIDELINES."

这位读者说:报社老板说,他可能不得不停办报纸,很多跟我一样的读者因此组成了一个联盟,我们的目标是说服报社的管理层,一定要保住这份报纸。我们都知道,这种时候不能在袖手旁观,必需要参与进来。

确实,由于经济衰退和读者群的流失,现在美国很多报纸都身陷困境,有的宣告破产、有的被迫减少版面,还有的逐渐向电子版过渡。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "The owner of our newspaper said he may have to end production. That caused lots of us readers to form a coalition. Our goal is to persuade management that the publication can and should be saved. We realize how critical it is to get involved right now and not sit ON THE SIDELINES."

你喜欢喝可乐、雪碧吗?学校里应不应该安装这类饮料的自动贩卖机呢?让我们一起听听下面例子里这个孩子是怎么说的。

M: "My parents got a letter from the superintendent. She wants to get rid of the soda machines at school. A lot of my friends think it's unfair. Maybe I should be more concerned, but I'm ON THE SIDELINES. I'm going to wait and see what happens. Frankly, it's no problem if I have to drink water or juice until I get home."

这个学生说:我父母收到了校长寄来的一封信,她打算撤掉学校里的饮料自动贩卖机。我的很多朋友都觉得这样做不公平,也许我应该更关心这样事,可我偏偏在一旁观望。我倒是想看看结果会是个什么样子。老实说,就算是要等回家以后才能喝到水和果汁以外的东西,对我来说也没有什么大不了。

最近,很多年轻人在发短信的时候,会附上自己十分暴露的照片,这叫 sexting. 我的邻居觉得这无伤大雅,是时代的产物。可我觉得,这太可怕了。我女儿的学校不久前专门就此开会。我绝不会 remain on the sidelines, 坚决要求对 sexting 的学生进行惩罚。好的,我们再来听一下上面那个例句。

M: "My parents got a letter from the superintendent. She wants to get rid of the soda machines at school. A lot of my friends think it's unfair. Maybe I should be more concerned, but I'm ON THE SIDELINES. I'm going to wait and see what happens. Frankly, it's no problem if I have to drink water or juice until I get home."

On the sidelines 这个习惯用语前面可以用很多动词,包括 be, sit, stay, wait 和 remain. 除此以外,还有另外一种说法,叫 to watch from the sidelines 站在边线以外观望。比如说开家长会的时候,如果有什么我觉得特别重要的问题,I will not watch from the sidelines. 我一定不会站在边线以外观望。

好的,这次美国习惯用语就到此结束了。

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: I don't like to be judgmental most of the time, so staying on the sidelines is a good way to avoid trouble.

B: That's one way to think of it. But you can't be silent about everything. If no one voices their opinion, there wouldn't be any progress in society.

A: Wow, look at you, professor...不过也是,像我们下面要讲的盗版光碟,就不能纵容!

B: Let's listen to today's business etiquette and check it out!

礼节美语Piracy I

Carl 下课,看到室友 Benny 买东西刚回来,好象很兴奋。

Benny: Hey Carl! Check this out! I just picked up three brand-new Hollywood movies...they haven't even been released in theaters yet!

Carl: Um...you mean they're counterfeit copies?

B: Sure! They only cost a couple of bucks each!

C: Yeah, but...they're illegal copies.

B: So? What's the problem?

C: I just don't think it's right to buy pirated goods. I don't want to sound too judgmental, but I think it's wrong.

Benny 兴奋地叫 Carl,Check this out! 快来看。原来,Benny买了三张盗版影碟,都是尚未发行的好莱坞大片。盗版可以说 counterfeit goods, 也可以说 pirated goods. 盗版碟很便宜,每张只要 a couple of bucks 两美元。Carl 说,I don't want to sound too judgmental, judgmental is spelled j-u-d-g-m-e-n-t-a-l, 意思是对别人妄加评论,但 Carl 还是要说,买盗版碟不对。

B: But Carl, those Hollywood film companies make millions and millions of dollars! It's not like I'm hurting some poor kid in Africa. These guys are billionaires.

C: Yes, that's true. But there's a simple rule to find out if something is wrong or not: Ask yourself, "What would happen if everyone did what you are doing?"

B: Well, if everyone bought pirated copies, no one would buy originals.

C: And if that happened the movie companies would go bankrupt and you'd never be able to enjoy cool new films, right?

B: I guess so.

Benny 觉得,自己买盗版,受损失的只是那些身价数十亿美元的好莱坞制片公司,所以没什么了不起。Carl 让 Benny 想想,如果大家都象他一样买盗版,会是什么结果。Benny 承认,那就没人买正品了。正品叫 original, original is spelled o-r-i-g-i-n-a-l, original. 没人买正品,制片公司就会 go bankrupt 破产,那就没电影看了。Carl 还说

C: Also, think about the initial investment. When a drug company makes a new medicine, it takes years to test it before they can sell it. If we buy the fake version, the drug company might not have the money to test some newer medicine. Movies are a big investment, too.

B: But the prices they charge are insane! I could buy 35 pirated DVDs for the price of one original!

C: Actually, I agree with you there. The movie studios do need to reduce their prices to something more reasonable. But that doesn't change the fact that it's still stealing.

Carl 提醒说,拍电影跟开发新药一样,需要大笔投资,这一点也不能忘。Benny 争辩说,可正版影碟实在是太贵了。The prices are insane. Carl 在这一点上同意 Benny 的看法,觉得制片公司需要把价格降低到更合理的价位,to reduce their prices to something more reasonable. 但他坚持说,这改变不了买盗版就是盗取的事实。Carl 是否能够说服 Benny 以后不再买盗版,我们下次继续听。

A: Benny买回了一些counterfeit goods, 盗版碟,Carl说,他不想表现得太judgmental, 对别人妄加评论,但是买盗版碟不对。Benny说,the price of the originals are insane, 正品的价格太贵了,Carl对此表示同意,可是还是认为买盗版不对。

B: Exactly. I won't stand on the sidelines if any of my friends are buying counterfeit goods. Just look at our team, it takes an enormous amount of time to make just a 10 minute video, let alone a 2-hour movie. We need to respect the efforts made by the people at these production studios.

A: To find out if something is wrong or not: Ask yourself, "What would happen if everyone did what you are doing?" So Mike, as yourself, what would happen if everyone acts like you, and keeps eating my snacks?

B: Hmm.. you will finally be skinny?

A: You evil....

B: (Evil laugh) Alright! Let's keep listening and see if Carl can persuade Benny!

礼节美语Piracy II

Benny 买了便宜的盗版影碟,他室友 Carl 觉得这样做无异于盗窃。Benny 争辩说,

B: Come on. If you steal, it means you hurt someone, right? When I buy fake DVDs, who am I hurting?

C: Actually, lots of people. Movie and software companies all over the world have lots of employees performing all kinds of jobs. There are designers, lighting people, make-up people and many, many more. If the company doesn't make money, these people lose their jobs.

买盗版影碟,会伤害到很多人,包括 designers 设计师、lighting people 灯光师、make-up people 化妆师,等等。如果电影制片厂不赚钱,这些人都得失业。此外,盗版影碟质量也不好。

C: Besides, isn't the quality of pirated DVDs really terrible?

B: Some of them are pretty bad. Sometimes you can barely hear the dialogue because the audio is so poor.

C: Then why not really enjoy the movie by renting a legal copy? You don't usually watch films again anyway. They just sit on your shelf taking up space!

B: (Laughs) That's true. I have 1000 of these things just lying around. OK, I can sort of see your point. But originals are still way too expensive!

盗版影碟质量差,有时连对话都听不清楚。况且,Carl 说,一部电影也不会反复看,无非是放在架子上占地儿,take up space 。Benny 承认,I have 1000 of these things just lying around. 他确实有很多盗版影碟放在那里。可他又说,正版实在是太贵了。Originals are way too expensive. 这里的 way 起到了强调的效果。

C: Yes, I agree, but I think that will begin to change soon. Pretty soon everything will be digital and you'll be able go online and cheaply buy a legal copy to download. Prices should start to go down soon.

B: It's already happened for music. I can now buy single songs online legally for a very cheap price. Before I had to buy the whole album on a CD, but usually I only liked a couple of the songs on it.

Carl说,用不了多久,电影也会数字化,可以很便宜地合法下载。Prices should start to go down soon. 价格很快会下来。Benny 表示同意,因为他现在已经可以上网付费下载单曲,而不用象从前那样买整盘CD了。

C: Also, don't forget that buying original copies helps pay the salaries of your favorite movie stars. You're a big Jackie Chan fan, right?

B: Yeah! Jackie Chan is the best! Nobody can do stunts like Chan!

C: But how can the movie studios pay Jackie Chan millions of dollars to star in the films if everybody buys fake copies of his movies?

B: Ok, Ok I get it! ...I'll give up pirated movies. ....Now what am I going to do tonight?

C: Want to play chess?

B: Sure!

Carl 知道 Benny 是成龙的影迷,他继续劝 Benny 说,如果大家都买盗版,谁还付得起几百万美元请成龙拍电影呢?Benny 这才终于表示,Ok I get it! I'll give up pirated movies. 意思是,好了,我明白了,以后不买盗版了。

B: Actually, I think the market for pirated DVDs is going to dry up soon. With everything being digitized these days, you can get an original copy at a very reasonable price.

A: Yeah, I always buy digital versions of songs on iTunes! It's like 99 cents a song!

B: Exactly. And with that, you don't have to worry about millions of DVD taking up space at your house!

A: 没错! 好吧,盗版问题就到这里, Now let's go to another learn a word!

Learn A Word 1793 trade-in

今天我们要学的词是trade-in. Trade-in is spelled t-r-a-d-e, trade, and in, i-n, in; trade-in. Trade-in 是以旧换新的意思。Apple plans to launch an iPhone trade-in program, encouraging consumers to upgrade to the iPhone 5. 苹果公司计划启动苹果手机以旧换新的项目,以鼓励消费者把旧苹果手机升级到第五代。An elementary school in California will sponsor a toy-gun trade-in program, encouraging kids to swap their toy weapons for a chance to win a new bike. 美国加州的一所小学将组织玩具枪以旧换新的活动,鼓励孩子上缴玩具武器,参加这项活动的孩子都有机会赢得一辆崭新的自行车。好的,今天我们学习的词是 trade-in, trade-in, trade-in...

A: I'm thinking of getting a new car. Maybe I can trade-in my old car.

B: You can but you should be careful when dealing with used car salesmen- they're....tricksters.

A: Tell me about it! I can never figure out what they are thinking! they are just really good at playing with your head.

B: Maybe you need someone smarter to go with you! Hence... me!

A: Oh gosh...

B: Hahahaha. OK OK, in the next words and idioms, we will learn a phrase that is the opposite of tricksters!

A: Let's check it out!

Words and Idioms 850 An Open Book

美国习惯用语第 850 讲

这个周末我认识了我们的新邻居。当时我只是想去拜访她一下,顺便介绍一下自己,可是她非常热情,非要留我在她家吃饭。结果一顿饭下来,我对她的一切都了如指掌了,包括她的职业,她为什么要搬家等等。用英语来形容,她对我来说就是:

M: An open book. Open is spelled o-o-e-n, and book; b-o-o-k. An-open-book. An open book.

这个习惯用语中的形容词 Open是打开的意思,book是书。An open book是打开的书。用open book来形容一个人意思是这个人像一本打开的书一样,毫不掩饰他的个人情况,就像我那位新邻居一样,和我一见如故,什么都告诉我。

M: I'm sure she would have told me anything I wanted to know because she strikes me as AN OPEN BOOK.

美国有一位著名的黑人女诗人叫Maya Angelou,下面这位读者说,Maya Angelou能取得今天的成就,是因为她独特的生活经历:

M: Maya Angelou has written about her many challenges since growing up in the 1930s. From being discriminated against by Southern white society to being raped as a child, she's experienced pain that many people might have kept secret. But Ms. Angelou's life has been AN OPEN BOOK. Her courage and her insights are inspiring.

男:Maya Angelou 在她的作品中描述了她在1930年代成长的过程中遭遇的许多挑战。从南方白人的歧视到小时候被强暴,很多人可能会把这种痛苦的经历埋藏在心底,不愿意让别人知道。但是Maya Angelou 把自己的经历毫无保留地讲述给大家。她的勇气和见识鼓舞了很多人。

没错。她可以让这些痛苦的经历变成永久的秘密,但是她宁愿通过自己的作品向别人讲述她的经历。我觉得她很了不起。

前几天我去看车,那个卖车的人别提多讨厌了,油腔滑调不说,而且手段不高明,一眼就让人看穿了他的伎俩,用我们今天学的习惯用语OPEN BOOK来说:
M: You were able to READ HIM LIKE AN OPEN BOOK.

Read someone like an open book.

Read someone like an open book,意思是很容易就能猜到这个人在想什么。就像那个狡猾的汽车销售员一样,我可以READ HIM LIKE AN OPEN BOOK ,而且我知道这种人我不能和他打交道。

这样的人绝对不能到下面我们要讲的这个公司去申请工作,为什么呢? 我们听听这家公司的老板怎么说:

M: My construction company reflects my values as a builder. I believe in doing honest work at a fair price. I invite clients to ask any questions they'd like and look carefully at projects I've worked on. I think of my business as AN OPEN BOOK. I have absolutely nothing to hide.

男:我的建筑公司代表着我作为一个建筑商的价值观。我相信做生意要诚实,价格要公道。我欢迎我的客户提出任何问题,也欢迎他们审查我们以往的工程。我认为我的公司是一本打开的书。我没有任何东西需要隐瞒。

AN OPEN BOOK您觉得它的反义词会是什么呢? 不难猜, 就是

M:A CLOSED BOOK.

对。一本合上的书不知道它的内容当然很神秘了。 一个公司不想让别人知道他们的情况,我们可以说这个公司是一个CLOSED BOOK。形容一个人很神秘,也可以说这个人是CLOSED BOOK。

这次美国习惯用语就到此结束了。以后我想到更精彩的习惯用语一定和大家分享。

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: Mike, you are totally an open book! An open cook book that is (hehehe).......

B: At least my book has more than two pages in it OOOH BURN!

A: 好了同学们,这次节目时间就到这里了。

B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!
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