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中国时间: 12:39 2016年12月05日星期一

美语训练班第131课

  • 美国之音

B: Welcome to American English Mosaic, I'm Mike Bond!

A: And I'm Lin Yang.

B: Are you a frequent flyer? Is it economical to pay more and upgrade your flight to business class? We will offer you some insight in today's business etiquette.

A: 今天的美国人如何看待他们的政府? 我们在下面的节目中为你介绍。

B: And in words and idioms, we will learn what "tar and feather" and "tar with the same brush" means!

A: All coming up on this edition of American English Mosaic!

B: Now let's go into our first segment, Learn a word!

Learn A Word 1878 dysfunctional

今天我们要学的词是 dysfunctional. Dysfunctional is spelled d-y-s-f-u-n-c-t-i-o-n-a-l, dysfunctional. Dysfunctional 形容词,意思是失常的,失调的。One in three Americans believe the dysfunctional government is the country's biggest problems. 三个美国人里就有一个人认为,政府运作失调是美国所面临的最大问题。A recent study revealed that only around 2 out of 10 people actually escape the grips of a dysfunctional family. 最近的一项研究显示,每十个人当中,大约只有两个人能真正摆脱他们所在的不健全的家庭。好的,今天我们学习的词是 dysfunctional, dysfunctional, dysfunctional.

A: It's hard for kids to grow up in dysfunctional families. I have a friend who always seems very distant to people and favors spending time with his pet. Turns out that his mom favored his brother over him growing up, and it left him believing no one truly loves him.

B: That's horrible! Once you form a certain personality and world view, it's very hard to change it. I'm so grateful for my loving and caring family.

A: Yeah, I love my family too, it's full of happiness and laughter! But my mom did tar and feather me when I grew up.... 她一直相信不打不成材呀....

B: Well, what can I say, looks like she did a good job bringing you up!

A: Aww!

B: And you mentioned a good idiom: tar and feather. Let's listen to today's words and idioms and check it out!

Words and Idioms 885 tar and feather

美国习惯用语第 885 讲

刚才朋友跟我抱怨说,她的老板太可怕了! 她在工作上出了一点小错,老板就不依不饶,把她好一顿骂。这让我想到了一个习惯用语,那就是:

M: Tar and feather. Tar is spelled t-a-r, and feather; f-e-a-t-h-e-r. Tar-and-feather. Tar and feather.

Tar这个词不太常见,是“柏油”的意思。Feather大家都知道是指“羽毛”。把Tar 和feather放在一起,意思是“严厉惩罚”。比如,我的朋友被苛刻的老板骂得体无完肤,我们就可以说She felt TARRED AND FEATHERED by her overly critical boss. 当然了,倒霉的不只我朋友一个人,下面是一个高中生的烦恼,我们一起听。

M: : "I think my whole class hates English this semester. Our teacher is always ready to punish us for the slightest mistake. If she finds any misspellings on our compositions, she deducts several points from our grade. I don't understand the need to TAR AND FEATHER US."

这段话意思是:我估计,我们全班都恨透了这学期的英文课。我们的英文老师总是为了一丁点小错误而惩罚我们。她判作文时,发现一个错字就扣好多分儿。我实在不明白,她干嘛非要这么严厉地惩罚我们。

唉,分-分-分,学生的命根! 这位英文老师在判分时毫不留情,为一点小错而责罚学生,难怪不得人心! 好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "I think my whole class hates English this semester. Our teacher is always ready to punish us for the slightest mistake. If she finds any misspellings on our compositions, she deducts several points from our grade. I don't understand the need to TAR AND FEATHER US."

在生活中,我们常常会见到吹毛求疵,专挑别人毛病的人。我以前常看一个美食评论家的专栏,我发现,她的文章中,称赞别人的部分不到百分之10,剩下的全是挑毛病,最爱在别人的不足之处上大作文章。最后,许多读者都受不了她的这种态度,纷纷写信投诉她,没过多久,她的专栏就被撤掉了。可见,大众的力量不容忽视,中国不是有句话叫“众口烁金,积毁销骨”么。社会名流,他们更可能因丑闻而被大众Tar and Feather。不过,这种情况似乎也在发生变化,让我们来听听下面这个人的看法:

M: "I'm no longer shocked when I read about athletes and politicians who have extramarital affairs. It used to be that they'd be TARRED AND FEATHERED. Today, instead of being severely criticized, they're often forgiven. Then they're featured on magazine covers and make lots of money by writing books. It disgusts me."

这个人说:当我看到体育明星和政客们搞婚外情的新闻时,我已经不会大惊小怪了。过去,这种人一定会被人们的口水淹死,可现在,没什么人会去严厉斥责他们,相反,社会大众会原谅他们。他们还能上杂志封面,出书,大笔捞钱。这一切让我觉得恶心。

上面这段话让我想到一个女人玛莎.斯图尔特。她原本是“家政女皇”,可后来因股票内幕交易丑闻坐了5个月的牢。当时,She was tarred and feathered, 所以好多评论家都以为她将一蹶不振。可恰恰相反,她出狱后全面复出,经营的企业甚至比以前更成功,似乎也没人再提她犯罪坐牢的事儿了。让我们再听一遍刚才的话:

M: "I'm no longer shocked when I read about athletes and politicians who have extramarital affairs. It used to be that they'd be TARRED AND FEATHERED. Today, instead of being severely criticized, they're often forgiven. Then they're featured on magazine covers and make lots of money by writing books. It disgusts me."

Tar And Feather的起源是12世纪时的一种酷刑。当时,人们把Tar--柏油,倒在受罚者身上,然后再把Feather--羽毛,贴在柏油上,这样乎上几天,实在残酷。后来,to tar and feather就被引伸为“严厉惩罚”的意思了。 在学习英语的时候,难免犯错,不过,即使用错了词,犯了语法错误,别人也绝不能把你TAR AND FEATHER!

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: I'm so stoked! I just booked my ticket back home today! Yummy food and the spring festival celebration, here I come!

B: Ugh, I envy your life! Did you buy a non-stop?

A: No, I have one stop, but it's not too bad. I'm considering if I should upgrade to business class, it's a 13 hour flight, and crawling in economic class seats doesn't sound very appealing...

B: Seems like you've got to do some cost benefit analysis! Actually in today's business etiquette, we will talk about the pros and cons of upgrading to business class.

A: Let's go take a look!

礼节美语BE-257 Flying Business Class I

Cindy看到同事Wendy很开心的样子。

Wendy: (excited) Yeah!

Cindy: Hey, Wendy....you sure looked excited. What's up?

W: I just got a text message...and...I get to fly business class on my next trip to China!

C: Sweet! What city are you going to?

W: Beijing. The fabrics trade show is happening there next week.

C: Cool. I've never been to Beijing...you?

W: No. I've only been to Shanghai and Hangzhou.

C: Well...it's great that you get to see a new place.

Wendy这么开心,原来是因为要去北京出差,而且是坐 business class 商务舱,不是经济舱 economy class 或是 coach class. 除了商务舱和经济舱以外,大家知道的头等舱在英语里是 first class. 正说得高兴,另一位同事Amy走过来,问她俩要不要一起去吃午饭。

Amy: Hey girls...wanna go walk across the street and grab some lunch?

W: Sure!

C: Yeah, let's go. You know...Wendy should treat us today.

A: Why is that?

C: Because she gets to fly business class next week.

W: Sure...lunch is on me! I'm going to Beijing next Tuesday for the fabrics trade show. I've always wanted to see what traveling business class would be like and now I'll get a little taste!

A: Congratulations. Business class has so much more leg-room...the seats practically recline into a bed. Of course...first class is even nicer.

Amy问两人要不要一起去马路对面买点午饭吃 grab some lunch. Cindy让Wendy请客,Wendy should treat us today. 因为她下星期要坐商务舱去北京出差。Wendy欣然答应,说 Lunch is on me. 意思是午饭我来请。Amy说,商务舱 leg room 伸展腿脚的空间更大,椅子放倒就象床一样,但还是不如头等舱舒服。听上去Amy八成坐过。Cindy 问 Amy:

C: Are you speaking from experience?

A: Actually, yes. My husband and I flew first class to Hawaii for our honeymoon.

C: Wow!

W: That is cool. I've been stuck in coach all my life. Is it just my imagination, or have the seats in economy class been getting smaller over the years?

C: I don't think the seats have gotten smaller...I think the airlines are packing more rows of seats into airplanes and that means less leg-room.

A: Well, it's probably true that if we want cheap tickets we will have to put up with being crammed into an airplane.

原来,Amy去夏威夷度蜜月时坐的就是头等舱,所以她确实是speak from experience. Wendy很羡慕地说,I've been stuck in coach all my life. 我一辈子都没离开过经济舱。座位虽说没变小,但是航空公司不断在机舱里加座椅,pack more rows of seats into airplanes, 当然伸腿的地方就越来越小了。Amy无可奈何地说,想要买便宜的机票,就只能忍受飞机里的拥挤了。We will have to put up with being crammed into an airplane. to put up with 是忍受;cram 是动词,意思是挤在一起。

A: Wendy 看起来很高兴,因为她去北京出差可以 fly business class,乘坐商务v。商务舱更舒服,有更宽敞的 leg room, 伸展腿脚的空间。Wendy说,I've been stuck in coach all my life, 我一辈子都没离开过经济舱,所以这次能乘商务舱很开心。

B: I hope I can get a job in the future that will enable me to fly back and forth between the U.S. and China first class! I certainly wouldn't say no to more legroom!
A: Indeed, and the food is so much better! I guess that's a very important factor for a foodie like you...

B: You know me too well!

A: Haha! Alright, 我们接着来听听商务舱还有什么好处吧!

礼节美语BE-258 Flying Business Class II

Cindy看到同事Wendy很开心的样子。

Cindy: So Wendy, are you flying non-stop?

Wendy: Washington DC to Beijing...non-stop.

Amy: Oh that's lovely. The thing I hate the most about traveling is layovers. You have to get off the plane...get all your stuff...sometimes you have to go through security...then you wait around in the airport lounge for hours, and finally get back on a plane and endure more hours of flying.

C: Stopovers are a real pain in the neck. Sometimes they are quick, but most of the time layovers take at least three or four hours.

W: I got stuck at the Bangkok airport for nine hours once! I nearly went insane!
A: That's nasty. I'd rather just stay overnight and come back the next day.

Wendy的班机是直飞 non-stop, 不用转机,中途转机在英文里是layover 或者是 stopover. Cindy说,Stopovers are a real pain in the neck. 说一件事情是 a pain in the neck 意思是说这件事情特别讨厌。Wendy也说,有一次她被困在曼谷机场九个小时,I got stuck at the Bangkok airport for nine hours. Amy也说,她宁可找个地方过夜,I'd rather just stay overnight. 第二天再回来,也不愿意在机场干等。

C: Hopefully the airplanes of the future will be faster and bigger so we can get places more comfortably and quickly.

W: So...enlighten me on what pleasures await me in business class.

C: Well, the food is pretty good. Each meal has several courses and if you want seconds or thirds the answer is always: "No problem, madam."

A: The wine list is excellent, too. You also have a choice of dozens of brand-new movies and shows on your personal in-flight entertainment system.

C: But ...like I said earlier...the number one best thing about business class is the leg-room! You can stretch out and lie back. It makes all the difference in the world.

商务舱的乘客有哪些特殊待遇呢?Cindy说,首先是吃的好,每顿饭都有好几道菜,而且,if you want seconds or thirds 如果你想要第二份或是第三份的话,回答永远都是没问题。seconds第二份is spelled s-e-c-o-n-d-s, seconds, 就是second后面加个s. thirds也是一样,就是在third后面加个s. 除了吃的好,葡萄酒种类也不错。The wine list is excellent. 此外还有最新上映的电影,但是商务舱最好的地方还是宽敞,It makes all the difference in the world. 天壤之别。

A: Cindy's right. A 12-hour flight doesn't seem all that long.

W: Excellent! I'm very much looking forward to it. Okay, it's my treat...what do you want to eat?

A: I'll have the shrimp salad.

C: And I'll have a club sandwich and a cranberry yogurt.

W: I'll have carrot sticks and a tomato juice.

C: On a diet?

W: No...I'm just too excited to eat!

Wendy听后很高兴,说自己十分期待。大家开始点午饭,结果Wendy自己只要了carrot sticks and a tomato juice. 小胡萝卜和番茄汁。Cindy问她是不是在减肥,On a diet? 等于 are you on a diet? Wendy 回答说不是,是因为太兴奋,所以吃不下东西。

A: Wendy这次还可以fly non-stop,直飞,Amy说这简直太重要了,因为layover is a pain in the neck, 转机特别烦。Cindy说,商务舱不仅宽敞,而且食物非常好,the wine list 酒单也不错,而且还有非常即时的 in-flight entertainment system,途中娱乐系统。

B: Sounds like a 13-hour flight won't be that long if you are flying business! You should consider it Yang Lin.

A: I think I'm gonna do it! A wine list on the plane? That's what I'm talking about.

B: There you go! Alright, enough about flying, let's go ahead with our class.

A: Let's listen to another learn a word!

Learn A Word 1883 indefinite

今天我们要学的词是 indefinite. indefinite is spelled i-n-d-e-f-i-n-i-t-e, indefinite. Indefinite 形容词,意思是不明确的,无限期的。The head coach has decided to take an indefinite leave of absence to care for his sick wife. 为了照顾生病的妻子,球队主教练决定无限期请长假。The union launched an indefinite strike, requesting shorter hours and better pay. 工会发起无限期罢工,要求缩短工时,增加工资。The bridge was closed indefinitely for repair work to be done. 这座大桥要接受检修,将无限期停止使用。好的,今天我们学习的词是 indefinite, indefinite, indefinite.

A: I feel like the construction in front of our building has been going on indefinitely...

B: They sure are not efficient enough, but that probably is in par with the government's pace.

A: Haha, Mike, you can't tar every government employee with the same brush!
B: My bad, my bad. But what does tar with the same brush mean? Let's check it out in today's words and idioms.

Words and Idioms 886 TAR WITH THE SAME BRUSH

美国习惯用语第 886 讲

前两天,我和朋友逛街时路过一家PIZZA连锁店,我想进去吃饭,可朋友说,她在这个品牌的另外一家店吃过,那里的服务糟透了,所以,这家店的服务一定也很差。她说什么也不在这里吃。虽然PIZZA没吃到,但朋友的做法让我想起了一个习惯用语,那就是:

M: Tar with the same brush. Tar is spelled t-a-r, and brush; b-r-u-s-h.. Tar-with-the-same-brush.

Tar 这个词不太常见,当名词时是“焦油”的意思,当动词是指“涂抹焦油”;BRUSH,大家比较熟悉,是“刷子”的意思。To Tar somebody or something with the same brush,字面的意思是“用同一把刷子涂焦油”,其实是指“因为某人或某物不好,就误以为和他们类似的人或物都不好”,也就是“一杆子打翻一船人”。比如,我这位朋友因为看到一家连锁店的服务不好,就断定另外一家连锁店的服务也不好,这就是Tar it with the same brush,一杆子打翻一船人了。毕竟,两家店虽然是一个品牌,但服务员的素质可能并不相同。

在生活中,这种一概而论的事经常发生。比如,下面这个老板在招聘员工时的态度:

M: "One of the applicants for a part-time sales position came with good references. Yet my boss didn't want to hire him because he was still in high school. Apparently, he'd had a bad experience with a teenaged employee. To me, he TARRED HIM WITH THE SAME BRUSH. Why did he blame him because of another teen's poor performance?"

这段话意思是:在应聘兼职销售员的人中,有个人条件不错,获得以前雇主的强力推荐。可是,我们的老板不想雇他,因为他还是个高中生。很显然,老板以前雇过高中生,可那个孩子表现不好。这下,老板一杆子打翻一船人,凡是高中生,他都不雇了。我觉得,这对应聘人来说是不公平的。

这个老板显然在招聘过程中有歧视行为! 因为一个人的年龄而不给他工作机会,这在美国可能被人告上法庭! 让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "One of the applicants for a part-time sales position came with good references. Yet my boss didn't want to hire him because he was still in high school. Apparently, he'd had a bad experience with a teenaged employee. To me, he TARRED HIM WITH THE SAME BRUSH. Why did he blame him because of another teen's poor performance?"

在日常生活中,如果你常常对人对事一概而论,可能会错过很多机会。比如,在挑选恋爱对象时,就应该有个开放的态度,不能随便把对方脸谱化。让我们来听听下面这段话:

M: "My buddy thinks that I shouldn't ask Jean out because she's divorced and he'd dated divorcees who seemed desperate. But I'm not going to TAR HER WITH THE SAME BRUSH. I'm not about to fault Jean because of my friend's bad dating experience with other divorced women. It isn't fair."

这个人说:我的一个哥们儿觉得,我不应该和Jean 约会,因为她离过婚,而我这位哥们儿交往过离婚女人,觉得她们的人生态度都很消极。不过,我不会一概而论,不会因为我朋友同离婚女人合不来就觉得Jean不好,这么做对Jean是不公平的。

说到一概而论,我想到我的表姐。她家那个市的市长贪污公款被判了刑,因为这个,她就决定再也不在选举中投票了。这么做太过了吧! 我承认,一些政客的确是腐败的,但也不能因此就Tar them with the same brush,一杆子打翻一船人,觉得他们个个都坏。

让我们再听一遍刚才的话:

M: "My buddy thinks that I shouldn't ask Jean out because she's divorced and he'd dated divorcees who seemed desperate. But I'm not going to TAR HER WITH THE SAME BRUSH. I'm not about to fault Jean because of my friend's bad dating experience with other divorced woman. It isn't fair."

说到Tar with the same brush的起源,最初是牧羊人把焦油涂在羊的伤口上,给羊治病。后来,同一群羊就都被涂了焦油,受到了同样的对待。到了19世纪初,这个短语开始被用在人的身上。

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: Mike, working with you is really effecting me! I've started taring all of VOA's employee's with the same brush.

B: Really? how so?

A: I keep suspecting that they are all trying to dodge work!!!

B: ouch.....

A: 好了同学们,这次节目时间就到这里了。

B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!

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