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中国时间: 17:55 2016年12月08日星期四

美语训练班第78课

  • 美国之音


A: 欢迎大家来到这期的美语训练班! 我是杨琳!

B: 我是Mike! 杨琳,来告诉大家今天都要学什么?

A: 没问题! 今天,我们要聊聊美国的大学排名,看看西方人有什么迷信传统,还要告诉你怎么说短板!

B: Western superstitions? There are a bunch of them, especially now that Halloween is around the corner....the ghosts are....

A: (cut mike off) 你别说你别说! 我听了鬼故事睡不着觉! (B: Oh really....) 好了好了不开玩笑了,我们赶快来进入第一个单元,learn a word!

Learn A Word 1593 household

今天我们要学的词是 household. Household is spelled h-o-u-s-e-h-o-l-d; household. Household 是家庭,一家一户的意思。American gymnast Gaby Douglas made a household name out of herself with her gold medal win at the London Games. 美国女子体操选手Gaby Douglas在伦敦奥运会上赢得金牌,变得家喻户晓。美国农业部公布的报告显示,Almost 18 million American households struggled to find enough to eat in 2011. 美国有将近1800万个家庭2011年曾遇到过缺少足够食物的情况。利物浦连续第四年成为全英国失业家庭比例最高的城市。Almost a third of all households in Liverpool have no employed family members. 利物浦将近三分之一的家庭,都没有任何家庭成员工作。好的,今天我们学习的词是 household, household, household...

A: 说起household, 那天我看到了一个报导,The median income of American households peaked in 2007, and has been decreasing ever since. 这经济怎么也不复苏呀!

B: Actually the economy has been improving. However, it will take at least 5 to 10 years for the economy to get back on track after the major economic recession we've had.

A: 那你觉得经济的短板是什么呀?

B: Well, I guess it's still the housing market. The market had a major bubble five years ago, and then everything just collapsed.

A: 嗯,对! 不过这个短板,该怎么说呢? 咱们一块去听听今天的美语怎么说你就明白啦!

How to say it in American English
weak point

Jessica 在北京学汉语,她的中国朋友要是遇到了不知道用美语怎么说的词,就会来请教她。今天是Lulu要问的:短板。

Jessica: Hi, Lulu, how's your new job treating you?

LL: 唉,还可以吧。不过我觉得同事们都很强势,弄得我不敢说话。这种内向害羞,真是我的短板!

Jessica: 短板?

LL: 短板就是我的弱点,缺点。哎?这用美语该怎么说呢?

Jessica: I see. It is your weak point, or shortcoming.

LL: 哦,短板在美语中就是 weak point, 或者 shortcoming. I think being shy is my weakest point. I really should be more aggressive.

Jessica: Don't worry. Sometimes it takes me time to open up to people too. You should stick to your strengths by showing your co-workers what you're good at.

LL: 你是说,让我多向同事展示自己拿手的方面,stick to my strengths, 就是扬长避短,对么?

Jessica: 没错!

LL: 说是这么说,可是现在,我们组我资历最浅,好像觉得插不上嘴,好象局外人。

Jessica: As I said, you just need some time to warm up. It's natural to find it a bit challenging to fit in at the beginning, but you'll be fine very soon! Talk to your co-workers! Ask them stupid questions! They won't see you as a poor fit.

LL: a poor fit? 这又是什么意思啊?

Jessica: You find people or things a poor fit if they don't suit you, or don't get along with you. For example, if someone is a poor fit in a team, he is not working well with other team members.

LL: 明白了,a poor fit 就是不合适,如果一个团队里有个人不合群,他就是 a poor fit for the team.

Jessica: That's right. Lulu, I'm sure you're a good fit for the team. Now let's see what you've learned today!

LL: 今天我们学了,短板是 weak point, 或者 shortcoming; 扬长避短是 stick to your strengths; 不合适,不合群是 a poor fit.

A: 听见没有Mike, you need to stick to your strengths! 扬长避短!

B: You realize that means I basically have to take care of everything since I'm working with you! Compare to you, I'm better at EVERYTHING...

A: And that just flies in the face of common sense. 大家都知道这不是事实...

B: Hahah, I kid I kid. But you just mentioned a really good term "fly in the face of." Let's listen to today's words and idioms and find out what it means!

Words and Idioms 988

美国习惯用语第 988讲。我是杨琳。

M:我是Steve Baragona.

我阿姨去年开了一个蛋糕店。现在她生意越做越好,她还正在准备开个分店。这使得很多甜品业同行感到奇怪,他们都因为经济不振而收入下降。而我阿姨的蛋糕店生意蒸蒸日上,与他们的情况正相反。这也让我想到一句习惯用语,那就是:

M: Fly in the face of. Fly is spelled f-l-y, and face is spelled f-a-c-e. Fly in the face of.

这个词组里的词都很简单,不过连起来跟飞或者脸都没有关系,而是“完全相反,截然不同”的意思。像上面的例子中,甜品业普遍业绩不好,可是我阿姨的蛋糕店却蒸蒸日上。It appears to FLY IN THE FACE OF what's typical in the industry. 祝她好运!再下面的例子里,我们要讲讲教育领域的一些改革。你肯定认为现在高科技教育占了主导地位,咱们来听听下面这些学校的做法有什么不同:

M: "Most American schools have been increasing spending on high technologies. That meant more computer-assisted learning in the classroom. Yet a small minority of institutes are focusing on traditional learning. They believe it's much better for the students. It's unclear if they're right. But it certainly FLIES IN THE FACE OF what most schools are emphasizing."

[这段话是说: 大多数美国学校现在都在高科技上投资。这就意味着课堂里出现更多电脑技术的支持。但是也有一小部分学校坚持传统教育。他们认为这样更有利于学生。现在还不清楚他们是否正确,不过很显然,他们的做法跟大多数学校背道而驰。]

我的一个朋友 Jenny 也是这样。现在很多人都通过 facebook,微博和twitter 这类社交网站联络沟通,可我朋友 Jenny 坚持不用这些社交平台,她认为面对面的沟通才是最好的。It flies in the face of what most people do these days. 这与眼下大多数人的做法都截然不同。好的,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "Most American schools have been increasing spending on high technologies. That meant more computer-assisted learning in the classroom. Yet a small minority of institutes are focusing on traditional learning. They believe it's much better for the students. It's unclear if they're right. But it certainly FLIES IN THE FACE OF what most schools are emphasizing."

不知道我们的听众是不是体育迷,我本人就挺爱看美式橄榄球,总觉得是一种不同的文化体验。下面这个例子里就讲到了一个名叫Tim的球员,我们来听听看:

M: "Tim is one of a few football players who isn't shy about his religious beliefs. Before every game, in front of huge television audiences, he kneels in prayer on the field. He knows not everyone approves. Still, he doesn't regret FLYING IN THE FACE OF how athletes are expected to behave."

[这段话是说:Tim是少数敢于表明自己宗教信仰的球员之一。每场比赛开始前,当着电视观众的面,他都会跪在赛场上祈祷。他知道并不是每个人都赞成他的做法。他并不取悦社会对运动员的一些期待,他也丝毫不后悔。]

我觉得每个人的宗教信仰都是他的自由。就像最近很火的Jeremy Lin,林书豪,他也对自己的宗教信仰毫不掩饰。我有一个同性恋朋友,she's very open about her sex orientation, this flies in the face of some traditional views. 她很公开自己的性取向,这与很多保守的观点大相径庭。好了,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "Tim is one of a few football players who isn't shy about his religious beliefs. Before every game, in front of huge television audiences, he kneels in prayer on the field. He knows not everyone approves. Still, he doesn't regret FLYING IN THE FACE OF how athletes are expected to behave."

今天我们学习的习惯用语fly in the face of, 意思是截然相反,大相径庭。好的,这次[美国习惯用语]就到此结束,我是杨琳,我是Dan Markus。谢谢各位的收听。

A: Fly in the face of 截然相反。我这就能造个句! 天气预报说今天很热,结果我就穿了个小短袖! But the weather today flies in the face of the weather forecast, it is freezing outside!

B: Haha. Didn't you know that being a weatherman is the only job in the world which you can be wrong 90% of the time and still get paid?

A: 哈哈,then I take it that being a Weatherman ranks no. 1 on your list of possible careers! (B: Hey! ) 咱们接下来要再来学个词儿,顺便来听听世界大学的最新排名怎么样!

B: Let's listen!

Learn A Word 1598 ranking

今天我们要学的词是 ranking. Ranking is spelled r-a-n-k-i-n-g, ranking. Ranking 是排名的意思。Harvard and Princeton remain tied for No.1 on the U.S. News and World Report's "Best Colleges Ranking". 美国新闻与世界报道杂志公布的最新美国大学排名,哈佛大学和普林斯顿大学并列第一。在另外一项世界大学排名中,MIT took first place, knocking Britain's University of Cambridge into second place and Harvard into third, according to the QS World University Rankings. 根据QS世界大学排名,美国的麻省理工学院排名第一,把英国剑桥大学和美国哈佛大学挤到了第二位和第三位。好的,今天我们学习的词是 ranking, ranking, ranking....

A: 这个世界大学排名榜,不同的机构排得都太不一样了! 不能信不能信!

B: Aww 杨琳,honestly is it because your school is not listed ? (打喷嚏 sneeze)

A:你看,报应来了吧! 你是不是感冒了?

B: Me? No! Don't you see how strong I am? I never get sick!

A: Uh-Oh, Mike, you'd better knock on wood, don't jinx it...不过大家可能正在纳闷为什么让Mike敲木头呢? 听听下面的礼节美语你就明白啦!
B:


礼节美语--Superstitions Etiquette-Part I

MC: 来自中国的雇员 Sue 跟男同事 Pete 和女同事 Julie 一起去吃饭。

Pete: Hey Sue! Don't walk under that ladder...it's bad luck!

Sue: Julie, Is he serious?

Julie: Kind of. There is an old tradition in the West that says it's bad luck.

S: You mean a superstition?

J: Yes, I guess it is a superstition.

S: But, Julie...you're from the UK and Pete is American! I thought Western people weren't superstitious!

Pete: Actually, many of us are. In America we have a whole bunch of superstitions.

Pete 警告 Sue 不要从梯子下面走,It's bad luck. 会带来坏运气。这不是迷信吗! superstition, s-u-p-e-r-s-t-i-t-i-o-n, superstition 迷信。Julie 是英国人,Pete 是美国人,原来,西方人也迷信。

S: Wow...I always thought Westerners considered superstitions old-fashioned. My family is Chinese; almost all of us are very superstitious.

Julie: Well, I think the superstitions might be different, but pretty much every country in the world has them.

S: Is the number "four" unlucky in the West?

J: No...I don't think so.

P: Um...wait. Why is the number "four" bad?

S: In Chinese the pronunciation of the "four" sounds a lot like the word for "death."

P: Oh, I can see why that would be bad.

Sue 原以为,西方人觉得迷信是 old-fashioned 守旧过时的,只有中国人迷信,没想到,其实西方人也迷信,但是东西方迷信的内容不同。比如说,中国人觉得数字“四”不吉利,跟“死”谐音。

J: We might be OK with the number "four" but some Western people think "thirteen" is an unlucky number.

P: That's true. Some buildings will skip the thirteenth floor or call it "12A" or something.

S: Ha! That's funny! In many Chinese places they do exactly the same thing with the fourth floor! But why is thirteen unlucky?

J: Well, it's not too clear how that happened...but it probably has something to do with twelve being a lucky number.

西方人不忌讳“四”,但是忌讳“十三”,很多大楼因此没有十三层,用12A来代替。Sue 说,中国也有类似做法。不过,在西方文化里,“十三”为什么不吉利呢?Julie 说,大概是因为“十三”前面的“十二”是一个 lucky number 特别吉利的数字。

J: Twelve is a number featured in many stories and legends and so it's kind of considered to be a good number.

S: But thirteen is not?

P: Yeah...and the most unlucky day of all is if a Friday falls on the 13th of a month. That's considered to be a super unlucky day.

S: Yeah. I saw a horror movie called "Friday the 13th" once!

J: Yeah! That's a great horror movie!

在西方,很多传说和故事里,十二都是吉祥数字,可十三却代表着厄运,如果哪个月的十三号正好又是星期五的话,一定要小心,that's considered a super unlucky day. 那可是特别不吉利的日子。

A: Pete和Julie给Sue讲起了western superstitions, 西方的迷信传统,比如don't walk under a ladder, don't use the number 13等等。Sue本来还以为西方人觉得迷信是"old-fashioned" 传统守旧的,没想到西方人比东方人还迷信。Do you believe in superstitions, Mike?

B: I sure do!

A: So what are some other superstitions in the west?

B: Hmmm, if you see a black cat crossing your path, you are going to have very bad luck. I guess it's because black cats have long been associated with witchcraft.

A: 啊? 我有个好朋友就有只小黑猫,我还觉得他挺可爱的呢!

B: Oh my gosh, then your friend is in serious trouble. But actually, for all these superstitions, it all depends on weather you believe it or not.
A: 对! 信则有,不信则无。咱们接着听 Sue 告诉了Pete 和Julie什么吧!

礼节美语--Superstitions EtiquettePart I

来自中国的雇员 Sue 跟男同事 Pete 和女同事 Julie 一起去吃饭,三个人谈到了东西方的迷信。Sue 说,

S: What about walking under a ladder? What's wrong with that?

J: You know, I'm not really sure! But it's probably a good idea to avoid it...something might fall on your head!

P: That makes sense!

S: So many of your superstitions don't really have a specific origin?

J: Many of them might be related to religious issues...but the origin kind of gets lost in history.

Julie 说,西方很多迷信都不知道是从哪来的了。The origin kind of gets lost in history. 比如说,从梯子下面走会带来坏运气,可为什么呢?或许是上面会掉东西下来砸到你吧,但没有人能肯定。

P: Oh! I can think of one superstition that's related to religion. Many Western people say "Bless you!" to a person if they sneeze.

J: Right. That's because around 500 years ago, people thought saying "God Bless You" could help heal the person and stop the spread of disease.

P: Still today, many people say, "Bless you" after someone sneezes. It's now considered polite.

S: I think that's a sweet thing to say. Tell me some more Western superstitions!

不过,不少迷信跟宗教有关,Pete 举例说,有人打喷嚏,旁边的人说 "Bless You" 就起源于宗教。 Julie 说,大约五百年前,人们觉得说上帝保佑你 God Bless You 能防治疾病,但是今天,别人打喷嚏,你说 Bless You已经变成一种礼貌了。

P: Well, if you see a black cat walking in front of you...bad luck might be coming very soon!

S: A black cat is kind of evil, huh? I guess that's why a witch always has a black cat!

J: Yeah...but I have a black cat at home and he's not evil at all. He's a sweet little cat.

P: I'd say many Western people don't take these things very seriously, but they are still a part of our culture.

J: I know one! Breaking a mirror is seven years of bad luck! Back in ancient times, a mirror was said to be a window to your soul, so breaking one was very bad!

在西方,如果你前面有一只黑猫,那可糟了,意味着厄运临头。可 Julie 就养了只黑猫,可爱极了。看来西方人也并不真信 They don't take these things very seriously. 另外,打碎镜子代表七年的坏运程,因为古代人觉得镜子是通向心灵的窗口。

S: Do you have superstitions about where things are built?

J: You mean like Feng-Shui?

S: Yes! Exactly! How do you know about that?

P: Feng-Shui is becoming quite popular in the West. Some people now do try to follow some of the rules if they can.

S: Wow! It seems we are starting to share traditions!

P: Sure! Why not?

J: Yes...I think it's good to get to know each other's culture better.

西方人信风水吗?Pete 说,Feng-shui is becoming quite popular in the West. 风水在西方越来越流行,这也算是文化互通吧。

B: (Sneeze)

A: aGod bless you, Mike! 我看你是感冒了,还是回家好好喝水睡觉吧...

B: I'm not sick! I'm just allergic to you!
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