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中国时间: 17:21 2016年12月10日星期六

美语训练班第95课

  • 美国之音

A: 欢迎大家来到这期的美语训练班! 我是小北!

B: 我是Mike! What are we going to teach today, Xiaobei?

A: 今天,我们要谈一下穿着打扮对你能产生多大的影响,聊聊裁员,还要告诉你怎么说咬紧牙关忍受。

B: But first, let's learn a word!

今天我们要学的词是root cause. Root is spelled r-o-o-t, root, and cause, c-a-u-s-e, cause, root cause. root cause 根本原因。世界经济论坛说,The lack of competitiveness in Europe is the root cause of financial instability and rising unemployment numbers in the region. 缺乏竞争力是欧洲经济不稳定和失业率高的根本原因。波音787梦幻客机全面停飞。The root cause for the Dreamliner's problems are currently under investigation. 梦幻客机根本问题出在哪里目前正在调查之中。The root cause of gun violence in the U.S. is a hot button topic these days. 美国枪支暴力的根本原因是如今的热门话题。好的,今天我们学习的词是 root cause, root cause, root cause...

A: Root cause, 根本原因。Mike你知道嘛,要能当上微薄红人,就要每天积极和粉丝互动。所以咱们节目的微薄还得加强互动。

B: I think that's a big part of it. People like to feel like they have a say in things and there is no better way to learn a language than to have a native speaker to practice with. It's just one of the many important services I bring to the team.

A: 这么说,你在咱们组很重要啊!

B: 当然! The following phrase we're going to learn is exactly what can be used to describe me. Let's listen!

Words and Idioms Great White Hope

美国习惯用语第 1000讲。

我妹妹的公司最近业绩不佳,于是公司请了个特别有销售经验的经理,希望能靠着这位高人扭转公司的销售状况。 让我想到一个习惯用语,那就是:
Great white hope. Great is spelled g-r-e-a-t, white; w-h-i-t-e, and hope; h-o-p-e. Great-white-hope. Great white hope.

Great white hope 指身负众望的人或事。The new hire at my sister's company is expected to vastly expand sales. He is their great white hope. 大家都觉得我妹妹公司新雇的经理能把销售搞上去。在下面的例句中,一个政党的主席谈到了代表自己政党参选的理想候选人所具备的素质,咱们来听一听:

"We need a candidate who can appeal to middle-class voters like our opponent. It has to be someone that represents our traditional values, has strong leadership skills and communicates effectively. Every possibility we've looked at lacks what our party requires to win the next election. Where is our GREAT WHITE HOPE?"

这段话是说: 我们需要的候选人要能和我们的对手一样,吸引中产阶级选民。他必须代表我们的传统价值观,领导能力强,能有效地与人沟通。所有有可能的人选我们都看了,但是他们缺少赢得下次选举所需要的特质。那个可以让我们赋予厚望的人在哪儿呢?

我最近听说有的IT产品公司要开发一款智能电视,能够直接跟家里的电脑啊,DVD机啊,音响啊什么的连接,只要你一声令下,它就会自动为你播放电脑或DVD机的片子。The concept represents the company's great white hope for the future.这个概念代表了这家公司未来希望的所在。这产品要是真出现了,我一定会买,多方便啊。 好的,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

"We need a candidate who can appeal to middle-class voters like our opponent. It has to be someone that represents our traditional values, has strong leadership skills and communicates effectively. Every possibility we've looked at lacks what our party requires to win the next election. Where is our GREAT WHITE HOPE?"

刚才我们说到了电子产品业界的新概念,下面的例句中,我们听听在冷饮业有什么好点子。

"With another ice cream shop down the street from mine, I've had to find ways to be unique. My plan is to introduce some super premium favors using the finest ingredients. The dark chocolate with bite-sized pieces is my GREAT WHITE HOPE. I believe it will bring in lots of customers."

这段话是说:离我们冰淇淋店不远又开了一家冰淇淋店,所以我必须得出点奇招。我的计划是推出一些用上好原料做的顶级好吃口味。我把希望寄托在黑巧克力口味小块冰淇淋上,相信这款产品一定会吸引来很多顾客。

美国的冰淇淋很好吃,世界知名。在美国人最喜欢的口味中,巧克力排第二名,第一名呢?是香草口味! 不知道这和您的喜好是否一致。好的,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

"With another ice cream shop down the street from mine, I've had to find ways to be unique. My plan is to introduce some super premium favors using the finest ingredients. The dark chocolate with bite-sized pieces is my GREAT WHITE HOPE. I believe it will bring in lots of customers."

学习的习惯用语是great white hope, 意思是被寄予厚望的人或事。

A: Mike, you need to work harder on being our team's great white hope!

B: 好吧好吧, What if I start wearing nicer clothes to work everyday?

A: 穿漂亮衣服有什么用啊?

B: Dressing to impress helps to improve your work performance and makes people to take you more seriously.

A: 真的?

B: Yes! I'll just let this weeks Business Etiquette explain how it works.

Business Etiquette: You Are What You Wear

Cathy 早上上班见到同事 Adam.

Cathy: Hi, Adam, nice tie.

Adam: Thanks.

C: By the way, can I ask you a personal question?

A: Ask away!

C: How come you're the only one at the office who wears a tie to work every day? I'm not criticizing your fashion choices, and you don't have to answer if you don't want to.

A: No. I'm happy to answer that question! I assume you're like most people: you prefer to wear comfortable clothing whenever possible, right?

Cathy 问了 Adam 个personal question 私人问题,问Adam 为什么每天上班都西装领带的,而公司的着装标准并不严格,所以其他人一般都是怎么舒服怎么穿。Cathy 还补充说,I'm not criticizing your fashion choices. 意思是说我不是想对你的穿着指手划脚,而是好奇。Cathy 承认,平时如果没事,他就会穿得很随便。

C: Absolutely! If it's a special event or a business meeting or something, then sure, I'll put on a suit or a nice business dress. But I much prefer to dress more casually.

A: I understand that logic. But of course you've heard about "power-dressing," no?

C: Yeah....if you wear nicer looking clothes, people take you more seriously, right?

A: That's the idea. I think everybody knows that the clothing we wear affects how others perceive us. But I've also discovered that what I wear affects how I think.

C: Really? That's an interesting idea. What exactly do you mean?

Cathy 说,如果有什么特别活动或是要开会,She'll put on a suit or a nice business dress. 穿西装或套装,否则的话,她还是喜欢穿得随便些,to dress more casually. Adam 问 Cathy 有没有听过 power-dressing 的说法,也就是说,如果穿得正式,别人就会更把你当回事。Adam 说,他发现,power-dressing 不仅会影响别人对自己的看法,同时也会对他自己的精神状态产生影响。

A: Well, there's a lot of research out there that says the position of our bodies affects our thoughts.

C: I've heard about that. I read an article that said if you sit up straight your thoughts become sharper than if you were slouching.

A: Exactly! But there are some new studies that show what you are wearing can also affect your thoughts.

C: Give me an example.

A: Scientists found that students who were wearing white lab coats performed better on tests than students who were wearing their own clothes.

C: Ah! So because the white lab coat has an association with intelligence, the students' brains actually got more intelligent?

有很多研究显示,一个人身体的姿势,往往会对人的思维产生影响,比如,坐直了就比窝着的时候思维更敏锐。Slouch is spelled s-l-o-u-c-h, slouch 意思是很放松地窝在那里,蜷在那里。Adam 补充说,现在的一些新的研究结果发现,what you are wearing can also affect your thoughts. 一个人的穿着也会对他的思维产生影响。比如说,穿着实验室白大褂的学生,考试往往比穿日常衣服的学生成绩好,因为穿着白大褂,会让学生觉得自己智商更高,因此考试时大脑的表现也就更出色。

A: 下班我就去买漂亮衣服! 这回咱是有堂堂正正的理由去大血拼了--为了提升工作表现!

B: That's the spirit! Though you still have to work hard as well I think. Dressing for success can only take you so far, your personal effort is the most key element.

A:当然! 咱们赶快把刚才的对话听完,看看他们还有什么好建议!

Business Etiquette: You Are What You Wear II

Cathy 跟同事Adam 正在讨论,一个人的穿着是否会对他的精神状态产生影响。Adam 说,

A: Have you ever heard the saying, "clothes make the man"? It might be truer than we imagine.

C: When a police officer or firefighter puts on their uniform it must affect their psychology. It probably gives them a sense of responsibility and authority.

A: Absolutely. When a judge puts on that heavy black robe it transmits an image of power, but it also serves as a reminder to the judge of the responsibility of their position.

C: I know when I'm wearing a nice suit I feel a lot more confident. If I'm going out for a night on the town and I'm all dressed up I feel a lot better about myself than if I was wearing jeans and a T-shirt.

英语里有一种说法叫 clothes make the man. 相当于中文里说的人靠衣服马靠鞍。Adam 说,这句老话恐怕比我们想的更有道理。警察穿上警服,消防员穿上消防服,法官穿上黑色长袍,都会平添一种使命感和权威感,Cathy 说,她每次穿西装,也会倍感自信,还说,晚上出去吃饭消遣时,如果 dressed up 精心打扮,就会自我感觉更好。Cathy说的, go out for a night on the town, 是一种固定说法,意思是出去吃饭,喝酒,看节目,消遣。

A: Yeah, I think everyone recognizes that part about the power of clothes....but that's not exactly why I wear a tie to work every day.

C: You wear it because you think it makes you smarter.

A: Yes. I think putting on a shirt and tie actually affects the way my brain works.

C: That's a very interesting concept!

A: My eyes look down and see what I'm wearing and my brain gets a reminder that I'm a businessman.... and I think the brain responds to expectations.

Adam 说,他每天都穿西装打领带,不是给别人看的,更多的是在提醒自己,随时提醒自己是商界人士,这样大脑就会做出反应,做出的事,说出的话都会更加得体。

C: It's kind of like an actor trying to play a role...you have to have the right costume!

A: I think that's a good way of expressing it! I'm sure it's much harder for actors and actresses to get into character before they put on the right costume.

C: Yeah....but after the clothes and the makeup go on, they look in the mirror and their brains are able to shift into the role.

A: The symbolic meaning of a tie is "business" and so for me it's an identifying symbol that I think affects both how others see me and how I see myself.

C: Interesting.....hmm.....maybe I should start wearing a suit.

这就跟演员穿上戏服,才能进入角色一样。Adam 觉得,这样比喻恰如其分,that's a good way of expressing it. 演员穿上戏服,化好妆,看着镜子里的自己,他们的大脑就会做出反应,help them to shift into the role. 帮他们进入角色。Adam 最后说,西装领带,对他来说就是一种定位的象征符号,不仅影响到别人对他的看法,也会影响到他自己的精神状态。 Clothes make the man, 也可以说,you are what you wear, 人靠衣服马靠鞍。

B: So, wearing nice clothes to work reinforces that what you are doing is important. Plus feeling a little extra confidence never hurts anyone.

A: 不过要是赶上办公室裁员,你穿得再漂亮,再professional, 也没用!

B: Well, that's another story. Let's learn how to say 裁员 in English.

Learn A Word: cutback

今天我们要学的词是 cutback. Cutback is spelled c-u-t-b-a-c-k, cutback. Cutback 做为名词,意思是减少,削减。When the budget is tight, one of the first things to happen is a cutback in travel. 预算紧张的时候,最先被取消的就是出差经费。Apple's stock has fallen from a cutback on its orders to suppliers. 苹果公司因为减少了供应商的订单,导致股价下跌。美国邮政局宣布,从八月份开始,取消星期六的普通信件递送服务。The Postal Service expects to save $2 billion annually from the cutback. 美国邮政总局估计,取消星期六的服务,每年能节省20亿美元。好的,今天我们学习的词是 cutback, cutback, cutback...

A: Mike, do you think our office will see any cutbacks?

B: It's hard to say. The U.S. economy is not back at its full speed yet, so cutbacks can happen to any place. The best thing we can do is just grit our teeth and bear it........Oh speaking of which that's the topic of our next Words and Idioms! Let's listen.

Words and Idioms Grit One's Teeth

美国习惯用语第 1001讲。

我爷爷90大寿,全家人都从各地赶来,要好好给他过个隆重的生日。其实,爷爷一个人清静惯了,最不喜欢热闹。不过,为了不扫儿孙们的兴,他还是同意让大家热热闹闹地搞个寿宴。这让我想到一个习惯用语,那就是:

Grit one's teeth. Grit is spelled g-r-I-t, and teeth; t-e-e-t-h. Grit-one's teeth.

Grit one's teeth是咬紧牙关,咬牙接受困难的意思。My grandpa didn't appreciate the fancy celebration of his birthday. But he had no choice but to Grit His Teeth. He felt uncomfortable throughout the birthday party. 我爷爷不喜欢这么大张旗鼓地庆祝生日,不过他没有别的选择,只能默默地接受大家的安排。在整个生日庆祝会上,他都感觉很不自在。不过,不自在归不自在,毕竟这还是儿孙的孝心,过生日也是好事,比起在下面例句中所要忍受的东西,可是好多了。咱们来听一听:

"Maggie was running well in the marathon when she tripped and sprained her ankle. The pain was intense and she had a long way to go. Many people would have quit. But Maggie decided she was going to continue. She GRITTED HER TEETH and made it to the finish line."

这段话是说: Maggie本来在马拉松比赛中跑得好好的,却摔倒扭了脚腕,她疼痛难忍,可是离终点还远着呢。很多人在这种情况下都会退出比赛。可是,Maggie决定继续坚持。她咬紧牙关,跑到了终点。

看来精神作用还是很重要的,靠着完成马拉松的信念的支持,这个女孩咬牙克服了疼痛。好的,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "Maggie was running well in the marathon when she tripped and sprained her ankle. The pain was intense and she had a long way to go. Many people would have quit. But Maggie decided she was going to continue. She GRITTED HER TEETH and made it to the finish line."

要说身体上的疼痛还可以咬牙忍受,那精神上的折磨或压力则可能更让人难受。我有个朋友,和公婆生活在一起, 每天被公婆数落,什么饭菜做得不好,没有教好小孩,等等等等。She just listens and grits her teeth! 她也只能听着,心里忍着不作声。跟这个朋友比,下面例句中的问题似乎没那么严重了,咱们来听一听。

"Every day on my drive to the office, I'm facing the same nightmare. There are long delays because of road construction. And there's usually an accident or two. Since it's the only route available, I keep GRITTING MY TEETH. It'll continue to take all of my patience until the roadwork is finished."

这段话是说:每天我在开车上班的路上都会遇到同样的问题。那就是,因为修路,路上总会出现耽搁。而且时常会发生一两起交通事故。不过,我上班只有这一条路线,所以对这些问题我只能咬牙接受。在修路结束以前,我只好动用自己全部的耐心来应对这些问题了。

堵车,排队,等待,这的确是日常生活中既多见又烦人的事情。就比如我们在机场过安检的时候,队伍很长,如果再遇上有人不清楚安检程序,忘记把兜里的金属物品掏出来,一个人要过好几次,而这时候你偏偏又在赶飞机,哎呀,那可要烦死了。There we are gritting our teeth. 在这种情况下,大家都在压着心里的烦躁,默默捱着。好的,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

Every day on my drive to the office, I'm facing the same nightmare. There are long delays because of road construction. And there's usually an accident or two. Since it's the only route available, I keep GRITTING MY TEETH. It'll continue to take all of my patience until the roadwork is finished.

今天我们学习的习惯用语是grit one's teeth, 意思是咬紧牙关,默默忍受。

B: I guess we will have to just grit our teeth and handle the extra workload until Yang Lin gets back.

A: 这你算是说对了! 不过算啦,我请假的时候大家也都在分担我留下的工作嘛。

B: Good teammates cover for each other!

A: That's right! 好了,今天节目时间差不多了。

B: If you have any questions or comments, please email us at meiyu@voanews.com. Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!
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