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中国时间: 12:14 2016年12月11日星期日

美语训练班第97课

  • 美国之音

A: 欢迎大家来到这期的美语训练班! 我是小北!

B: 我是Mike! What are we going to teach today, Xiaobei?

A: 今天,我们要和大家聊聊买车,还要告诉你怎么说陷入停顿。

B: But first, let's learn a word!

Learn A Word 1667 extended

今天我们要学的词是 extended, extended is spelled extended, extended. Extended 是形容词,延长的,长期的。He has been on extended sick leave since this summer. 他因为生病,从今年夏天就开始休长假。圣诞节前,Many retail stores are offering extended hours to meet the need of lastminute shoppers. 很多零售商家都延长营业时间,满足拖到最后一刻才来采购的顾客们的需要。extended warranty 延长的保修期。Experts say in most cases buying extended warranties are bad ideas. 专家说,大多数情况下,购买商品的长期保修其实并不划算。好的,今天我们学习的词是 extended, extended, extended...

B: You know what, Xiaobei? Yanglin wechatted me the other day and said she might take an extended vacation and come back 2 weeks late, which means you'll have to continue hosting the show with me for a while.

A: 啊?杨林假期延长两周?凭什么啊?不管,我已经代班这么久了,下周你自己主持吧!

B: You want me to go solo?

A: I have faith in you.

B: You must be kidding! This show would grind to a halt if it was just me doing it! Think of our poor dedicated listeners Xiaobei!

A: Grind to a what? I don't think I've ever head of that idiom before, let's listen to Words and Idioms to find out what it means. 先听一听!

Words and Idioms 815 GRIND TO A HALT

美国习惯用语第815讲。

华盛顿的天气最近特别热。只有这种时候,大家才能体会到空调的好处。如果没有空调,真不知道怎样才能工作。这倒让我想起了一个有趣的习惯用语,这就是我们今天要学的:

M: Grind to a halt. Grind is spelled Grind, and halt; halt. Grindtoahalt. Grind to a halt.

Grind 是动词,有嘎嘎作响的意思。Halt 是名词,停顿的意思。Grind to a halt 这个习惯用语就是慢慢停下来,无法继续前进。大家现在明白了吧,我刚才说最近天气特别热,如果没有空调,Work would grind to a halt. 工作就会陷入停顿。

你们肯定还记得,上个世纪末的时候,因为担心从二十世纪迈入二十一世纪,电脑无法正常工作,世界各地都在吵 Y2K 的问题。让我们听听下面这个历史学家的介绍。

M: "Before the new century began, there was a lot of discussion of Y2K. That's the name of the software problem that was feared when the clocks rolled over into the year 2000. But despite terrible predictions, the world didn't GRIND TO A HALT. Most computers continued to work just fine."

这个历史学家说,进入新世纪之前,出现了很多围绕 Y2K 的讨论,指的是钟表敲响 2000年的时候,电脑软件可能会出现状况。尽管有很多耸人听闻的预测,但世界并没有因此而陷入停顿。大多数电脑都照常运转,并没有出现问题。我还记得,当时所有人都如释重负。

就在上周末,我去参加外甥的毕业典礼。他们这届学生特别多,所以决定在室外举行。出席毕业典礼的学生、家长和老师大约有1000人。可就在嘉宾讲话的时候,忽然阴云密布,瓢泼大雨劈头盖脸地下了起来。不用说,The program ground to a halt. 毕业典礼告一段落。我们只好开车回家,但是因为路上能见度太差,The traffic started to grind to a halt. 路上的车流开始陷入停顿。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "Before the new century began, there was a lot of discussion of Y2K. That's the name of the software problem that was feared when the clocks rolled over into the year 2000. But despite terrible predictions, the world didn't GRIND TO A HALT. Most computers continued to work just fine."

去年,美国好莱坞的剧作家协会罢工,给娱乐业带来了巨大的困扰。让我们一起来听听下面这个记者的报导。

M: "Last season's strike by writers in Hollywood had a significant impact. Without scripts, production on most television series and movies GROUND TO A HALT. It took months of negotiations before a settlement was reached and filming started again."

这个记者说,上一季好莱坞剧作家的罢工产生了非常大的影响。因为没有剧本,所以大部分电视连续剧和电影的制作都陷入了停顿。经过好几个月的谈判,双方才达成协议,让拍摄工作得以恢复。

值得一提的是,grind to a halt 这个习惯用语还有另外一种说法,是 come to a grinding halt. 意思完全一样。所以我们可以说,Work would have come to a grinding halt without air conditioning. 假如没有空调,工作恐怕就得停下来了。The world didn't come to a grinding halt because of Y2K. 世界没有因为 Y2K 而陷入停顿。或是 Hollywood productions came to a grinding halt. 好莱坞剧目的制作陷入了停顿。好的,让我们再听一下上面的例句。

M: "Last season's strike by writers in Hollywood had a significant impact. Without scripts, production on most television series and movies GROUND TO A HALT. It took months of negotiations before a settlement was reached and filming started again."

美国习惯用语真是太多了,所以大家不用担心,Our show won't grind to a halt.

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

B: See? If you desert the show next week, and Yanglin's not back yet, our show will grind to a halt! Then 领导 gets mad, and we all get fired!

A: 说得也对。所以不管杨琳会不会来,咱们都还是老实干活吧。

B: Yep. Besides, Yanglin hasn't finalized her plan yet, so she might be back on time.

A: 好吧,咱们继续听节目吧,今天的礼节美语要聊聊买车。


礼节美语215 Buying a Car I

Chris告诉同事Jason, 准备买辆新车。

Jason: Hey there Chris, what are you up to?

Chris: I'm just poring over some brochures about various car models.

J: Oh, so you're thinking about buying a new car?

C: Yeah, it looks that way. My wife has been bugging me about it. I thought we could probably survive without one, but with a baby on the way, maybe it is time to get a car.

J: So this would be your first automobile?

C: That's right. For quite a few years, I rode a bicycle to work. Then I got a motorbike.

Chris太太怀孕,所以不得不考虑买车。Chris说,my wife has been bugging me about it. 意思是我太太一直在软磨硬泡要说服我,to bug someone是没完没了烦某人的意思,比如说,Stop bugging me. 意思就是别烦我了。这是Chris的第一辆车,他以前都是骑自行车或是骑摩托车上班,但现在 with a baby on the way 眼看就要有孩子了,所以只好考虑买车。Jason表示理解。

J: Yeah, I think I can understand your wife's position. Asking her to ride on a motorcycle when she's pregnant is a tall order.

C: Oh...I don't let her ride with me. It's just too dangerous. She takes the bus to work, but it is sometimes difficult to get a seat and it's crowded and hot.

J: So it's time to buy your very first car! Wow, that's exciting!

C: Yes, but it's also a pretty big financial responsibility.

J: Yeah. I still remember my first car. It was an old clunker that my dad gave me when I turned 17. I drove it around for a couple of years until I scraped together enough money to buy a better secondhand car.

Jason说,让太太挺着大肚子坐Chris的摩托车确实有点强人所难,It's a tall order. tall order 意思是很难完成的任务或要求。Christ解释说,其实太太不坐他的摩托车上班,但是挤公交车也很辛苦,所以才必须买车。Jason说,他的第一辆车是17岁过生日时老爸送的,It was an old clunker. clunker is spelled clunker, clunker, clunker 是老破车的意思,开了几年后,攒够了钱才自己买了辆稍微像点儿样的 secondhand car 二手车。Chris 说,

C: I'm having a hard time deciding which model is best for us.

J: Yeah, it is a tough call. Each one has its pros and cons. Are you looking for a sedan?

C: Yes, I'd like a Jeep, but my wife says we have to get a comfortable sedan for long drives home to see her relatives.

J: I'd advise you to listen to your wife. She will be sitting in the back taking care of the kids so whatever she prefers is probably the best choice.

Chris说,拿不定主意应该买什么型号的车。Jason承认,It's a tough call. tough call意思是很难做的决定。他还说,不同型号的车有各自的优缺点,pros and cons 是指一件事情的正反面,pros 是优点,正面的,cons 是缺点,负面的。Chris想买吉普车Jeep,但他太太坚持要买轿车sedan, 因为sedan开长途坐着更舒服些。买车还要考虑其他哪些因素呢?我们下次继续听。

A: 我觉得等到孩子生出来,轿车也不够大,最好直接来个SUV!

B: Or a mini van! Some of my friends have had kids, and whenever they take a trip with their kids they have to carry tons of baby stuff along with them. So no car is too big for parents with kids!

A: 是啊,所以咱们继续听听,看看Chris会不会考虑更大的车。

礼节美语 216 Buying a Car II

Chris准备买辆新车,向同事Jason征求意见。

Chris: What do you think about this one? Here....take a look.

Jason: I like it. It's quite stylish. But....it's also pretty small.

C: That's OK. We are only a family of three.

J: This model has a 1.3 liter engine. With a small engine, you'll save a lot of money on gas.

C: That's one of the reasons I'm considering this one. It gets good gas mileage and overall has good value.

J: When I was young, having a car was all about power, prestige and fashion. But today, everything is about economy, value and savings.

C: The world has changed.

Chris看中了一款车,征求Jason的意思。Jason说,车外观还是挺有形的,但就是有点小。Chris觉得,小点没关系,因为他们就三口人,a family of three, 小点也够用了。Jason说,这款车引擎是1.3公升的,省油,是优点。Chris承认,这也是他看中这款车的原因之一,It gets good gas mileage and overall has good value. 意思是说这辆车油耗低,总体上说很划算。Jason大发感慨,说自己年轻那会儿买车就是为了马力,时尚,如今大家考虑的却都是实用和省钱。

J: Have you considered getting a secondhand car?

C: My wife rejected that idea. She says that you never know if the car dealer is unscrupulous. The car could be water damaged or could have been involved in an accident.

J: She makes some good points. Anyway, having a new car is a great experience.

C: I'm also trying to decide if I should take the three or fiveyear payment option.

J: If I can make a suggestion: go with a threeyear plan. The fiveyear might look easier, but in the end, the interest payments are not worth it.

Chris不准备买二手车,因为他太太担心碰上个缺德的二手车车行老板,把出过车祸的车买回家,上面所说的 unscrupulous is spelled unscrupulous, unscrupulous, unscrupulous 意思是没有道德操守的。Jason觉得,she makes some good points. 她说的很有道理。在贷款方面,Chris不知道应该三年还清还是五年还清,Jason建议他做三年的贷款,因为五年贷款每个月付的钱看上去虽然少些,但其实把交的利息都算进去,就不值了。

C: I'll go home and do the math, but you're probably right.

J: How about the color?

C: Blue is my lucky color, so I'll pick blue if possible. My wife says we should consider black because it doesn't look dirty so quickly.

J: Cool! Well, let me know when you decide. I'd love to check out your new car!

C: Sure, Jason. Thanks for the input.

Chris说,我回家算算 I'll go home and do the math. Do the math 是口语里很常用的一种说法,意思是算算清楚,特别是指明摆着的事情,比如:We cannot afford that house with our salaries. You do the math. 咱们的工资买不起那栋房,你自己算算吧。在颜色选择上,Chris说,蓝色是自己的幸运色,而太太觉得黑色经脏。Jason最后说,I'd love to check out your new car! 买了新车别忘了给我看看。

A: 这个准爸爸也太小气了,车买得不够大,又怕费油,要不是老婆拦着,他弄不好还想买个二手车!

B: I don't blame him. With a baby on the way, a father needs to be a bit frugal.

A: 也是,咱们没孩子,体会不到现在养一个孩子要花多少钱。不过,对父母来说,孩子都是无价宝,容易为这个小家伙冲动购买。

B: That's right. But looks like Chris is still quite coolheaded. Okay, now let's listen to another episode of Learn a word.

Learn A Word 1668 substitute

今天我们要学的词是 substitute, substitute is spelled substitute, substitute. Substitute 名词,是替代,替补的意思。A substitute teacher is heir to a trove of gold coins worth more than $7 million. 一名代课老师继承了很多珍贵的金币,价值七百多万美元。Across the country, a lot of people are using a drug called Spice as substitute for marijuana. 美国各地有不少人吸食一种叫Spice的毒品,做为大麻的替代品。Pure maple syrup is the perfect sugar substitute in a variety of dishes, including desserts and baked food. 纯枫树糖浆在做菜时是糖的绝佳替代品,包括甜点和烘烤食物。好的,今天我们学习的词是 substitute, substitute, substitute...学习的词是 substitute, substitute, substitute...

A: I've been a substitute for Yanglin for quite a few weeks. 不知道听众朋友喜不喜欢我主持。

B: I think you did well. Even Yanglin spoke highly of your performance on the show!

A: Really? 难道她就不担心被我彻底取代 ?

B: Ha! She probably is worried. The phrase we're teaching next describe her concern to a T. Let's listen.

Words and Idioms 816 Has Had one's Day

我先要考考大家。你们都知道,一美元等于一百美分。谁能说出一美分 one cent 的另外一个名字?

(Tickers, and Buzzer Sound) 时间到!如果你说的是 penny, penny, 那就对了。Penny 以前还挺值钱的,可如今,早就没人想要了,很多美国人甚至主张让美分退休。这倒提醒了我。今天我们学习的习惯用语就是:

M: Has had its day. Hashaditsday. Has had its day.

如果说什么东西 has had its day, 意思就是这种东西已经没什么用,不再受欢迎,不象以前那么成功了。换句话说,就是过时了。什么是你最喜欢的交通工具?让我们听听下面这个记者的报导。

M: "Until very recently, travelers in the U.S. have chosen to get on an airplane for quick and affordable transportation. So HAS the train HAD ITS DAY? Maybe not. Because of increased security at airports and higher airfares, many passengers have shown a renewed interest in rail service. It may become popular once again."

这个记者说,直到最近一段时间,很多美国人出门旅游,还喜欢坐飞机,因为飞机速度快,价钱又不贵。那是不是说火车已经过时了?这可不一定。由于机场加强安检,机票又不断涨价,很多游客又开始转向火车了。没准火车会重新受到欢迎呢!

没错,我就喜欢坐火车。虽然火车不如飞机快,但是坐火车很舒服,而且现在飞机的燃料价格不断上升,都转嫁到了乘客的身上,机票越来越贵。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "Until very recently, travelers in the U.S. have chosen to get on an airplane for quick and affordable transportation. So HAS the train HAD ITS DAY? Maybe not. Because of increased security at airports and higher airfares, many passengers have shown a renewed interest in rail service. It may become popular once again."

还有什么东西是 has had its day 过时的呢?比如说,电报,肯定大家都同意。Telegram has had its day. 再比如说,报纸。 估计有一部分人同意。那 Internet 因特网呢?因特网如日中天,正火呢,肯定不能说 it has had its day. 还有啊,现在大家都上网购物,Shopping mall 购物中心是不是过时了呢?那恐怕也不尽然。

Has had its day 这个习惯用语也可以用在人身上,比如说早已没人提起的老电影明星,我们就可以说 She has had her day. 下面让我们听听一名消防队员是怎么说他的老队长的。

M: "I have the greatest respect for the fire chief. Over the last thirty years, he's been a courageous leader. But, frankly, he HAS HAD HIS DAY. Firefighting has changed and it's time we appoint a successor who can take on new challenges."

这个消防队员说,我对我们队长有着无限的敬意。过去三十年来,他一直是我们的领导,勇气过人。但是坦率地讲,他那一套已就过时了。消防工作日新月异,他需要一个能够接受新挑战的接班人。既然有过辉煌的事业,那么急流勇退也没有什么不好。我昨天晚上看电视,是两个喜剧表演的老搭档。我从小就是看他们的节目长大的,可是40年过去的,同样的笑话他们今天还在讲。I really believe they have had their day. 好,我们再听一下上面的例句。

M: "I have the greatest respect for the fire chief. Over the last thirty years, he's been a courageous leader. But, frankly, he HAS HAD HIS DAY. Firefighting has changed and it's time we appoint a successor who can take on new challenges."

大家可能会问,这种说法是从哪里来的? Has had its day 这个习惯用语最早可以追溯到16世纪。Every dog has its day. 意思是所有人都会有得意的日子,也就是我们常说的风水轮流转。

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: Yanglin, you've had your day! Come back quickly, otherwise the job is mine.

B: I'll relay the information to her. I'm sure it will help her decide to come back as soon as possible.

A: 咱俩可真够坏的! 好了,不开玩笑了,今天节目时间又到了,咱们得说再见啦!

B: If you have any questions or comments, please email us at meiyu@voanews.com. Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!
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