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中国时间: 14:42 2016年12月04日星期日

何清涟: 从革命者到独裁者:卡扎菲最象谁?


编者按:这是何清涟为美国之音撰写的评论文章。这篇特约评论不代表美国之音的观点。转载者请注明来自美国之音或者VOA。

经过2011年中东北非“茉莉花革命”,世界独裁者构成的“暴政者俱乐部”又减少了几位成员。

所谓“独裁者”通常指在独裁或专制的政权下,取得国家最高权力的领导人。盘点这些独裁者如何登上权力宝座,会发现一个有趣的结果,虽然有部分人是通过民主制度成为领导人,成立内阁后实行独裁统治,但更多的是通过革命之路走向独裁统治,由革命者成为独裁者,其间几乎不需要思想与行为的转换,区别只在于掌权还是未掌权。

亚非拉国家的独裁者,有不少还是当年忠实的毛粉。这一巨大“成就”,由何明星骄傲地写成文章展示,这篇文章标题是“毛泽东著作在世界的传播——‘红色世纪’留给当代中国的巨大文化遗产”,作者将受到毛思想影响的革命领袖逐个数。其中埃塞俄比亚、贝宁、马达加斯加、加纳等几个国家更是由已成为政府领导人的“革命领袖”发出号召,要求人民学习毛著,以获得中国取得革命胜利的经验。因此,毛著单行本《实践论》、《矛盾论》在这些国家几乎人手一册。其中埃塞俄比亚与加纳的恩克鲁玛堪称学毛著标兵。

只是何明星先生不太愿意写到这些“革命领袖”大都成为独裁者,给他们的国家带来了巨大的灾难。而且作者可能也不知道,与非毛粉独裁者相比,毛粉独裁者的铁腕统治更残酷无人道。本文就以目前这段时期成为热点的卡扎菲为例,这位行将走向政治终点的铁腕人物,许多地方酷肖毛泽东。

首先,卡扎菲是毛泽东“枪杆子里面出政权”理念的崇拜者与践履者。他当年不仅学习毛“敢把皇帝拉下马”的勇气搞政变,还终生铭记毛泽东“枪杆子里面出政权”的教导,对本国人民实行暴力统治。毛泽东瘫痪在床上几年还霸着中共中央军委主席一职、紧紧抓住军权不放,卡扎菲也以“上校”之身份紧紧抓住军权不放,根本不以其他任何职务为念。

其次,卡扎菲很欣赏毛泽东鼓动人民对自己的个人崇拜,亦步亦趋效仿之。毛泽东喜欢别人称自己是“太阳”,喊万岁,一度还雄心万丈地要与苏共争当“世界革命领袖”,这一愿望受挫之后则将目标收缩为“第三世界的革命领袖”,热衷于“输出革命”。卡扎菲也有强烈的个人英雄主义,善于发动本国民众忠于自己。他从不以做利比亚一国的领袖为满足,时常做出各种惊险动作,向“阿拉伯世界领袖”的宝座冲刺,2008年,卡扎菲曾召集一群非洲部落领袖,要他们尊称他为“万王之王”。

第三,两人都是思想家。“毛泽东思想”至今还被说成是“中国人民的宝贵文化财富”,是中国共产党“贡献给世界的革命瑰宝”。卡扎菲不象毛泽东那样博学,手下人才也不似毛泽东那样多——这点很好理解,中国人口基数大,人才相应就多。利比亚总人口还没有中国一个大省多,卡扎菲麾下自然不会聚集那么多人才。因此,卡扎菲尽管也想当思想家,但却只出了一本《绿皮书》,以效仿毛泽东的“红宝书”——《毛主席语录》。

卡扎菲于1975、1976和1978年接连出版了三卷本的《绿皮书》。从那时起,每个利比亚学龄儿童都必须在学校里学习这本书。在《绿皮书》里,卡扎菲提出既非资本主义也非共产主义的“世界第三理论”,以说明他关于民主和民生的理想设计。卡氏心仪卢梭人 民主权学说,主张“直接民主”,认为个人无须保留自己的权利,应将其全部委托给国家,由国家代为行使。《绿皮书》规定国家最高权力机构是“全国人民大会”(比中国的“全国人民代表大会”少了“代表”二字)。关于这本书的价值,有深厚中资背景的香港凤凰台曾由阮次山专门采访卡扎菲,做了个专题节目“《绿皮书》和毛泽东思想的相同之处” ,开宗明义就告诉读者:“在利比亚,卡扎菲的3本《绿皮书》就像当年中国的《毛泽东语录》一样,是利比亚人手一本的‘绿宝书’。绿色在利比亚人心中象征着希望和生命,他们的国旗完全由绿色充填,国徽也以绿色为核心;在的黎波里的街道两旁,建筑物的门窗也大多被漆成深浅不一的绿色;卡扎菲更在《绿皮书》中提出‘把沙漠变为绿洲’的奋斗理想,鼓励他 的人民‘只有自力更生,利比亚的前途才能一片光明’。”

如果说阮次山名声不好,他将卡氏的《绿皮书》比之为毛的红宝书不够权威,武汉大学应该算是中国大学当中的“名门”了,2007年4月27日至28日,该校召开“卡扎菲思想学术研讨会”,校党委副书记骆郁廷代表学校致欢迎辞,说“卡扎菲是阿拉伯国家的重要领导人,是中国人民的老朋友,为中利关系的发展做出了贡献;他也是著名的思想家。”

正是这种亦步亦趋的学习,成就了卡扎菲的终生“伟业”。不过,毛泽东与卡扎菲两人都好勇斗狠,这就注定了统治数亿中国人、睥睨世界、敢放言“一切反动派都是纸老虎”的毛泽东不会太喜欢桀骜不驯的卡扎菲。在今年卡扎菲败局已显时,国内有人根据这一点,认为二人“针尖对麦芒,一山难容二虎。所以,在毛主席生前中、利两国关系停止不前,连外交关系都建立不起来”,否认卡扎菲是毛的好学生。这种论调多少有点“以成败论英雄”的势力眼,人家失败了,就不肯承认人家卡扎菲是从行为到思想酷肖毛泽东的传人,不够意思。

我的结论是:波尔布特学了毛泽东“以万物为刍狗”的残忍并发扬光大,卡扎菲则是从行动到思想最全面的学习者。只因二人并非中华民族成员,未读我中华《二十四史》,无论如何学不了毛泽东善用“以天下苍生为念”这类冠冕堂皇之辞掩饰其暴君真面目的工夫。

From Revolutionary to Dictator, who does Muammar Gaddafi resemble the most?

By He Qinglian on August 24, 2011
(translated by krizcpec)

http://hqlenglish.blogspot.com/2011/09/who-does-muammar-gaddafi-resemble-most.html?spref=tw

After the 2011 “Jasmine Revolutions” in MENA, the “Club of Tyranny” formed by the world’s dictators has lost several of its members.

“Dictators” typically mean those leaders who obtain the highest power in authoritarian or totalitarian regimes. Looking back at the way they rose to power, one would find something interesting: although some became leaders of their countries through democratic elections first and realized dictatorship after their cabinets were formed; even more of them, however, headed for dictatorship through the revolutionary road. From revolution leaders to dictators, these people didn’t seem to need any change in the way they thought and acted. The only difference was whether or not they had powers in their hands.

Many of the dictators of Asian, African and Latin American countries were loyal fans of Mao in earlier years. This “great accomplishment” was proudly shown by He Mingxing in his article, “ The Spread of Mao Zedong’s writing around the world—the huge cultural heritage the ‘Red Century’ had bequeathed to the contemporary China (毛泽东著作在世界的传播——‘红色世纪’留给当代中国的巨大文化遗产)”. He listed out one by one the revolution leaders that had been influenced by Mao’s thoughts. Among those listed, revolution leaders turned government leaders in Ethiopia, Benin, Madagascar, Ghana and other countries called on their peoples to study Mao’s writings so as to learn from the experience of revolutionary victory of China. As a result, almost every one in these countries has a copy of Mao’s monographs, like On Practice (《实践论》) and On Contradictions (《矛盾论》).

Among these leaders, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana could be seen as an exemplar of learners of Mao’s writings.

Yet Mr He Mingxing is not willing to mention that most of these revolution leaders later became dictators and brought about great disasters to their countries. The author might also not be aware that, compared to dictators that were not fans of Mao, dictators who worshiped Mao were more brutal and inhuman in their iron fist governance.

This article would cite Muammar Gaddafi, who has become a hot topic of late, as an example. This strongman who is about to come to an end in politics is in many ways very very similar to Mao Zedong.

First, Muammar Gaddafi is a worshiper and practitioner of Mao Zedong’s concept, “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun”. He did not only imitate the daredevil courage of Mao Zedong and start a coup; but also remember by heart the teaching of Mao, “Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun”, and employed the rule of violence on his people. Mao would hold onto the post chairman of the CCP Central Military Commission despite having been confined to bed as a result of paralysis for years, his grip on the military power did not lessen a bit. Likewise, being a Colonel, Muammar Gaddafi has held military power tightly in his hand; no other task or duty has come to his mind.

Second, Muammar Gaddafi admired deeply the way Mao Zedong made his people idolize him and imitated it as closely as he could. Mao Zedong liked people to address him as “the Sun”, to chant to him “Long Live Chairman Mao”. At one point he became so aggressive that he wanted to compete with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union for the leadership role in the World Revolution. After that ambition had failed, Mao scaled down his target to acquiring the leadership position for the Third World Revolution and became feverish about “the export of revolution”. Similar to Mao, Muammar Gaddafi has a strong sense of personal heroism. He is good at making his people loyal to him. He has never been content with being a leader just of the country of Libya and often carried out all sorts of stunts to sprint for the throne of the leader of the Arab world.

In 2008, Muammar Gaddafi summoned a group of African tribal leaders and demanded them to address him respectfully as the king of kings.

Third, both Muammar Gaddafi and Mao are thinkers. To this day “Mao’s thoughts” are still said to be “the precious cultural wealth of the Chinese people”, and are “the gems CCP contributed to the world revolution”. Yet as much as Muammar Gaddafi wants to become a great thinker, he only managed to publish a single Green Book, an imitation of Mao’s little red book, Quotations from Chairman Mao. The reason? Muammar Gaddafi is not as well-read as Mao; and understandably, he doesn’t have as large a pool of talented subordinates as Mao did. After all, with China’s huge population, there are more talents correspondingly; whereas the total population of Libya is no bigger than that of a large province in China, it is quite natural that fewer talents are working under Muammar Gaddafi.

In 1975, 1976, and 1978 (1981?), Muammar Gaddafi published respectively the three parts of the Green Book. From then on, all school-age children in Libya must study this book in school. To illustrate his ideal design of democracy and people’s livelihood, Muammar Gaddafi put forward in the Green Book the “Third International Theory” which is neither Capitalism nor Communism. Muammar Gaddafi favors Rousseau’s doctrine of popular sovereignty, and advocates “direct democracy”, believing that individuals do not need to retain their rights, which should be fully entrusted to the state, and let the state exercise those on their behalf. And the Green Book decides that the country’s highest authority is the General People’s Committee.

As for the value of this book, “in Libya, What The Green Book by Muammar Gaddafi is to the Libyan people was what the Quotations from Chairman Mao once was to the Chinese people, a treasured book which each and every Libyan has a copy”, so it is stated right at the beginning in “The Parallels of the Green Book and Mao’sThoughts”, a special program by Hong Kong’s Phoenix Television, a broadcaster with profound Chinese background which has sent Anthony Yuen to conduct a one-on-one interview with Muammar Gaddafi.

That program went on saying that: “Green is in the hearts of Libyans a symbol of hope and life, their national flag is filled entirely by the color green, which is also the core of their national emblem; in Tripoli’s streets, buildings, doors and windows are mostly painted in different shades of green. Muammar Gaddafi even outlined in the Green Book the ideal he strove for—turning desert into oasis, and said to his people that ‘only through self-reliance can Libya have a bright future’.”

If because of Anthony Yuen’s bad reputation he does not have enough authority to liken the Green Book by Muammar Gaddafi to the Little Red Book by Mao Zedong, then there would be no such problem for Wuhan University, which is among the best of universities in China.

On April 27-28, 2007, that university held a “Symposium on Muammar Gaddafi ‘s thinking”. In the welcoming speech delivered on behalf of the university, vice-secretary of CPC School Committee Luo Yuting said, “Muammar Gaddafi is an important leader of the Arab countries, an old friend of the Chinese people who has contributed to the development of relationship between China and Libya. He is also a renowned thinker.”

It was precisely this close imitation that helped Muammar Gaddafi achieve his “great cause” in life. But, both Mao Zedong and Muammar Gaddafi are belligerent in nature. This has made it certain that Mao Zedong, the person who ruled hundreds of millions of Chinese people, looked down on the world and had been quoted as saying that “all reactionaries are paper tigers”, would not have liked much the rebellious Muammar Gaddafi.

Based on this, some in China said, as signs of Muammar Gaddafi’s defeat are shown this year, that Mao and Gaddafi were at loggerheads with each other, and they could not get together. As a result, before Chairman Mao’s passing, no headway had been made in improving the bilateral ties between China and Libya, and diplomatic relations couldn’t even be established. They denied that Muammar Gaddafi is among “the good pupils of Chairman Mao”.

Comments like this are somewhat snobbery in that they judge people merely by one criterion: whether or not they have been successful. And since Gaddafi has failed, they refused to recognize him as someone who is in both thoughts and actions strikingly similar to Mao. That is not quite right.

My conclusion is: while Pol Pot learned and gave full play to the ruthless, inhuman brutality of Mao Zedong; Muammar Gaddafi has been the most thorough learner of Mao, from thoughts to actions. However, both Pol Pot and Muammar Gaddafi are not of Chinese descend, and had not read the twenty-Four histories. They could never have learned the trick to put up the pretense of a benevolent leader and conceal their true nature of a tyrant.

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