无障碍链接

中国时间: 02:40 2016年12月09日星期五

美语训练班第117课

  • 美国之音

B: Welcome to American English Mosaic, I'm Mike Bond!

A: And I'm Lin Yang.

B: We have a great lesson prepared for you today. First we will take you to see how to effectively build your social network.

A: 我们还要带你去探索美国人对节食的看法,还有相关的有趣说法!

B: Then in words and idioms we will learn what "pull one's weight" and "when push comes to shove" means!

A: All coming up on American English Mosaic!

B: Now let's go into our first segment, Learn a word!

Learn A Word 1800 diet

今天我们要学的词是diet. Diet is spelled d-i-e-t, diet. Diet 名词,意思是饮食。对人类早期的牙齿化石进行的研究发现,About 3.5 million years ago early humans expanded their diet to include grasses and possibly animals。 古人类在大约350万年前急剧扩大饮食结构,开始食用草类,甚至是动物。你是素食主义者吗?最新研究显示,A vegetarian diet has been linked to lower death rates when compared to meat-eaters. 素食者跟吃肉的人相比,同期死亡率偏低。另外一项有趣的研究发现,Obese patients trust diet advice from overweight doctors more than advice from normal weight doctors. 跟正常体重的医生相比较,肥胖病人更相信体重超重医生提供的饮食建议。今天我们学习的词是 diet, diet, diet...

A: I know there's a lot of health benefit to being a vegetarian, but...I just can't give up meat. I mean, chicken wings might be bad for you, but it's soul food! 鸡翅最能慰藉我的心灵。

B: Haha, I hear you. Keeping a good diet doesn't mean you need to limit the kinds of food that you take in. You just need to watch your overall calories. I think the best way is to keep your intake to a modest amount.

A: That's true. 都说吃8分饱最好,听见了吗Mike? 8分饱....

B: Right, it only takes 60 dumplings to make me feel 80% full!

A: You certainly pulled your weight at the Korean BBQ restaurant last weekend!

B: You bet! Well, let's check out today's words and idioms, and learn the meaning of "pull one's own weight"!

Words and Idioms 855 Pull One's Own Weight

美国习惯用语第 855

讲我最喜欢参加的志愿活动就是翻修房子,为低收入的人提供住处。亲手让一栋破破烂烂的老房子焕然一新,会有一种难以言表的成就感,不过,这份工作也很辛苦,每个志愿者都不能偷懒。我们今天要学的习惯用词就与此有关,叫:

M: Pull one's weight. Pull is spelled p-u-l-l, and weight; w-e-i-g-h-t. Pull-one's weight.

Pull 是拉的意思;Weight 是体重。pull one's weight 意思是完成自己那份工作。就象我刚才说的,整修房子工作艰巨,每个志愿者都要 pull his weight 齐心协力,才能顺利完成工作。

现在的美国社会,男人主外赚钱,女人主内持家已经不再是惯例。让我们听听下面这个例子里家庭成员的分工。

M: "For the last two years, I've been a stay-at-home dad while my wife has continued her law practice. Anyone who thinks I'm not doing my share of work is wrong. In addition to taking care of our two kids, I'm busy grocery shopping, running errands, doing the laundry, cleaning the house and maintaining the yard. I'm definitely PULLING MY WEIGHT."

这个人说:过去两年,我太太继续在律师事务所上班,而我却待在家里。不过,如果有人觉得我没有尽到自己那一份家庭义务的话,那可是冤枉了我。除了要照顾两个小孩外,我每天还忙着买菜、处理杂事、洗衣服、打扫房间、收拾院子。我绝对尽了自己的那一份义务。

有趣的是,这种家庭分工模式如今在美国已经越来越普遍。我个人觉得这样很好,让男人们也有机会去体会一下女人持家的辛苦。We've been PULLING OUR WEIGHT for centuries. 好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "For the last two years, I've been a stay-at-home dad while my wife has continued her law practice. Anyone who thinks I'm not doing my share of work is wrong. In addition to taking care of our two kids, I'm busy grocery shopping, running errands, doing the laundry, cleaning the house and maintaining the yard. I'm definitely PULLING MY WEIGHT."

在下面这个例子里,Carla 工作非常努力。让我们一起听听老板对她的评价。

M: "Don't underestimate Carla. She may have a lot less experience than other employees. But she contributes just as much as anyone on our team. There's no doubt in my mind that she PULLS HER WEIGHT around this office."

他说:千万不要低估 Carla. 也许她没有别的员工那么丰富的经验,但是她的贡献跟组里其它成员一样多。我丝毫也不怀疑,她尽了自己的那份力量。

我老公那儿刚刚开除了一个新员工。从简历上看,此人非常优秀,但是没用几个月的时间,老板就发现,他非常懒惰。He hadn't PULLED HIS WEIGHT. 好的,我们再来听一下上面那个例句。

M: "Don't underestimate Carla. She may have a lot less experience than other employees. But she contributes just as much as anyone on our team. There's no doubt in my mind that she PULLS HER WEIGHT around this office."

在英语里,专门有个词,用来指工作特别懒的人,叫 slacker, s-l-a-c-k-e-r, slacker。
Pull one's weight 这个习惯用语最早是从划船来的。大家都知道,划船的时候大家要齐心协力,每个人都要出力,船才会前进。

Pull one's weight 这个词的来历和用法我已经倾囊相赠,接下来就靠大家自己去练习了。You have to PULL YOUR WEIGHT.

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: 确实,学习外语很多程度在于自身的坚持和努力。俗话说,师父领进门,修行在个人。

B: That's for sure. It also helps a lot if you immerse yourself in the environment. My Chinese was way better when I lived in Qingdao. Now I try to hang out with other people here in DC who speak Chinese to keep up my fluency.

A: So that's the reason you hang out with me?

B: Duh. You think I really want to hang with you? (awkward silence) I'm kidding, kidding! All I'm saying is, I love to meet new people, and networking is very important in this town.

A:哼,饶了你! 没错,建立自己的人际网非常重要,不过如果你天性比较内向,不爱社交怎么办呢?

B: We can offer you some tips! Let's check them out in today's Business etiquette!

礼节美语 Social Networking I

Brad 和 Pam 邀请同事 Jimmy 下班后一起去酒吧,可 Jimmy 一再推辞,我们听听为什么。

Brad: Hey Jimmy, a couple of us are going out to Sam's Bar after work. Care to join us?

Jimmy: Oh, um...thanks for the invitation, but I'm pretty tired. I think I'll take a rain check.

Pam: But you took a rain check last time!

J: Yeah, I know. I'm just not so fond of bars.

Brad 说他们几个人下班准备一起去酒吧,问 Jimmy 要不要一起来, Care to join us? Jimmy 推辞说很累,还说 I'll take a rain check. 意思是这次算了,改天吧。比如说,朋友约你去逛街,可你已经说好跟男朋友吃饭,就可以说 I'll take a rain check. 下次吧!

P: Well, how about joining the company picnic next Saturday? We're playing beach volleyball and you could join our team! Come on! It'll be fun!

J: Um...you're so kind, but...I'm really not sure if I'll be able to make it.

B: Hey! I've got the perfect idea! We're making plans for a dinner appointment with all the department heads this Sunday...you should definitely come!

Pam 不肯放弃,问 Jimmy 要不要参加下星期六的公司野餐,company picnic, 还可以加入他们的沙滩排球队。 Jimmy 再次推辞,说自己可能去不了。I'm really not sure if I'll be able to make it. 这里说的 to make it 就是参加、出席的意思。比如说,朋友请你参加生日派对,可你那天已经有了安排,你就可以说 I'll try to make it. 我一定争取来。

J: Uh...guys, I really appreciate what your trying to do, and I don't mean to be a wallflower. I'm just a bit shy. Plus, I really don't like loud bars or clubs.

B: Let me tell you a secret. I hate bars and clubs too! But, I know that going out and being seen is a big part of networking.

J: You mean like on a computer?

P: No, Brad means social networking.

B: Basically, it means going out and meeting people. It really can mean the difference between success and being stuck at a career dead-end.

Jimmy 知道 Brad 和 Pam 的好意, 说自己 I don't mean to be a wallflower. 这里所说的 wallflower 壁花,指的是因为天性腼腆,或是不招人喜欢、所以很不合群的人。Jimmy 承认,自己不愿意参加这些活动,主要是因为害羞。Brad 马上说,其实他也很讨厌酒吧、夜总会这种地方,但是 I know that going out and being seen is a big part of social networking. 经常出去,跟人接触是建立社交关系网的一个重要部分。这里所说的的 social networking 就是多结识一些人,扩大社交关系圈子。Social networking 对事业发展很重要,可能会决定一个人的成功,还是 being stuck at a career dead-end 在事业上走进死胡同。

A: Brad和Pam约Jimmy出去跟大家一起social networking, 社交,但是Jimmy说,他不想做wallflower, 不合群的人,但是自己生性腼腆,not fond of bars, 不喜欢酒吧。Brad说,社交很重要,认识各个领域的人,这样你才不会being stuck at a career dead-end, 在事业上走进死胡同。

B: Yeah, networking seems like no problem for extroverts, but for introverts it's often a burden. Actually, I used to be really shy because I was afraid people would judge me if I said something wrong.

A: How did you overcome your fear?

B: I realized that most people don't judge! Once I overcame that psychological obstacle, networking becomes a piece of cake.

A: Good for you! Let's keep listening to Brad and Pam and see what advice they can offer Jimmy!

礼节美语 Social Networking II

Jimmy 因为天性腼腆,所以每逢社交活动,一律能推就推。同事 Brad 和 Pam 努力说服 Jimmy, 因为 social networking 是事业发展一个不可缺少的环节。Pam 说,

P: You know, I'm not such a big fan of company events myself. I don't like all the organization involved. I don't like being told when and where to do things. In fact, I don't even like big crowds of people.

B: But, in today's society these are the ways we connect. Social networking has boosted my career in so many ways.

J: Such as?

B: Well, take last week for example. I was at a club when I saw this guy I hadn't seen in a long time. He starts talking about his friend who is looking for a computer programmer.

Pam 说,其实她也不是特别喜欢公司举办的各种活动。I'm not such a big fan of company events myself. 这里说的 a big fan of something 意思就是对某件事情非常热衷。比如说,I'm a big fan of sushi. 我特别爱吃寿司。I'm a big fan of hip hop. 我特别爱听嘻哈歌曲。I'm not a big fan of horror movies. 我不喜欢看恐怖电影。

Brad 补充说,参加社交活动为他提供了不少机会,上星期他去夜总会,遇到一个很久不见的熟人,这个人的朋友正好在找电脑编程师。

J: And you got the job?

B: Yeah! The next day his friend called me and yesterday we signed a contract. I'm going to be setting up their company website, and the money is pretty good.

P: So I guess what Brad's saying is that if you don't get out there and be seen, people might forget about you.

J: Yeah, I can sort of understand your point. But how do I overcome my shyness? I'm just not very good with people.

结果,Brad 还真拿到了这份工作,帮一家公司 set up their company website 设计网站,而且 the money is pretty good. 报酬也很好。看来,有熟人介绍就是不一样。Jimmy 听后表示,I can sort of understand your point. 我大约明白你的意思了。这里所说的 point 是指问题核心。我们经常听人说 The point of the matter is....问题关键是。。。言归正传,就算真愿意出去社交,Jimmy 要如何克服性格腼腆的障碍呢?按他的话说,I'm just not very good with people. 我就是不擅于跟人打交道。

P: I was super shy for years! Then one day I finally realized that the world isn't looking at me.

J: What do you mean?

B: In other words, sometimes we feel shy because we think people are looking at us and judging us. But in reality, that's almost never the case.

Pam 说,自己以前也特别腼腆,I was super shy for years! 这里所说的 super 是特别的意思,用来加重语气。我们可以说,Her boyfriend is super sweet. 她男朋友特别温柔体贴,或是 It's super hot in here. 这里简直热死了,还可以说 I have been super busy this week. 我这个星期忙得两脚朝天。

Brad 也说,很多人天性腼腆,是因为觉得大家都在注意自己,但事实上 that's almost never the case. 根本不是这样。Pam 跟 Brad 能说服 Jimmy 吗?我们下次继续听。

A: Jimmy说,他不是a big fan of company events, 不是很喜欢公司的活动,又说自己not so good with people, 不善于和别人交往,Brad说,社交can boost up your career, 是事业发展的推动力。

B: Sometimes good networking skills mean the difference between success and being stuck at a dead-end job.

A: Networking is easy for me, I love to hear other people's stories, sometimes it can be inspiring for your own life!

B: Good Point! We will continue talking about social networking in our next class. For now, let's take a break from this topic.

A: 好,来听接下来的learn a word!

Learn A Word 1801 hold true

今天我们要学的词是hold true. Hold is spelled h-o-l-d, hold, and true, t-r-u-e, true, hold true. To hold true 意思是证明是对的,正确的,过去时是 held true。最新研究显示,每天睡眠不足六小时会加重心脏病,增加心脏病突发的机率。不过,The findings only held true for women. 研究结果只适用在女性身上。另外一项有趣的研究发现,脸书网站有利于提高申请大学的高中生的信心。However, the study only held true for first-generation college students. 不过,这项研究只适用于第一代大学生,也就是父辈从来没有人上过大学的孩子。今天我们学习的词是 hold true, hold true, hold true...

A: Going on facebook can boost your confidence? I think it's the opposite! People only post the best moments of their lives on facebook.

B: I feel the same way, whenever I'm on facebook, I feel like my life is not as awesome as my friends'.

A: That's because your life IS not as awesome as your friends'...

B: You...

A: Kidding kidding! I think there is some scientific study that proves that logging onto facebook all the time can actually leads to symptoms of depression because you are constantly comparing yourself to others.

B: That's true. I guess, if push comes to shove I will just delete my facebook account.

A: Yeah, as if. (laugh) 哎,你刚提到了一个俗语:when push comes to shove, let's check it out!

Words and Idioms 856 When Push Comes to Shove

美国习惯用语第 856 讲我叔叔一家来华盛顿玩,最后一天本来说好我带他们出去参观景点,我妹妹请他们在家吃饭。谁知到下午,我妹妹突然打电话说她不舒服。我只好赶快订餐馆,带叔叔一家去吃饭,好在一切都很顺利,这倒让我想起一个今天要学的习惯用词,叫:

M: When push comes to shove. Push is spelled p-u-s-h, and shove; s-h-o-v-e. When push comes to shove.

Push 是推;shove 是猛推。When push comes to shove 一般的推变成了猛烈的推,意思就是情况变得紧急时,迫不得已的时候。就象刚才所说的,我妹妹突然身体不舒服,只好由我来招待叔叔一家吃饭。When push comes to shove 出现紧急状况时,出面解决问题的总是我。

在下面这个例子中,一位公司总裁虽然公务繁忙,经常出差,但还是坚持锻炼身体,让我们一起听听他是如何做到这一点的。

M: "Normally I work out every day. But sometimes I have to travel out of town for work and I don't have access to a gym. So I run up and down the stairs at the hotel where I'm staying and use the room's furniture for doing sit-ups and dips. WHEN PUSH COMES TO SHOVE, I find ways to exercise."

这个人说:我通常每天健身,但有时出差,旅馆没有健身房,我就在旅馆的楼梯上跑上跑下,借助旅馆房间里的家具,做仰卧起坐,做支撑臂屈身推起,条件虽然不好,我也能想办法坚持健身。

这个人还真挺会随机应变的。其实,为了满足这些人的健身要求,现在越来越多的旅馆都开始增设健身中心,里面至少会有几台跑步机和一些哑铃。好的,让我们再来听听上面那段话。

M: "Normally I work out every day. But sometimes I have to travel out of town for work and I don't have access to a gym. So I run up and down the stairs at the hotel where I'm staying and use the room's furniture for doing sit-ups and dips. WHEN PUSH COMES TO SHOVE, I find ways to exercise."

在美国,贷款是常事,不论是买房还是买车,跟银行借钱都是少不了的。不过,跟别人联合贷款必须十分谨慎,为什么呢?让我们一起来听听。

M: "Has a friend or relative ever asked you to co-sign for a loan? Although it sounds like an innocent request, be careful. In the event that person isn't able to make regular payments, it will be you who's legally responsible. That means you could have your salary or property taken away. IF PUSH COMES TO SHOVE, the lender will do whatever is necessary to be repaid."

他说:你遇到过亲戚朋友求你跟他联名,一起向银行贷款的事情吗?虽然这个要求听起来没什么错,可你一定要小心。一旦这个人无力还钱,还钱的法律责任就会落到你的头上,也就是说,你的工资和财产都会面临被没收的风险。如果迫不得已,银行会不惜一切代价,把欠款要回来。

大家一定注意到了,这个例句里用 IF 取代了 WHEN。这个习惯用语是从英式橄榄球来的,交战双方队员有时挤做一团,相互推搡,直到哪个队员把球抢走为止。好的,我们再来听一下上面那个例句。

M: "Has a friend or relative ever asked you to co-sign for a loan? Although it sounds like an innocent request, be careful. In the event that person isn't able to make regular payments, it will be you who's legally responsible. That means you could have your salary or property taken away. IF PUSH COMES TO SHOVE, the lender will do whatever is necessary to be repaid."

M: Until next time.

下次节目再见。

M: This has been Words and Idioms.

A: If push comes to shove 领导 would totally fire you first!

B: And if push comes to shove I would totally rat you out for not coming to work that week 领导 was on vacation. Nothing personal, but I've got bills to pay!

A: Yeah, as if. 好了同学们,这次节目时间就到这里了。

B: Tune in next time for American English Mosaic!

A: See you next time!
XS
SM
MD
LG