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中国时间: 17:01 2016年12月05日星期一

美语训练班第77课

  • 美国之音


A: 欢迎大家来到这期的美语训练班! 我是杨琳!

B: 我是Mike! 杨琳,来告诉大家今天都要学什么?

A: 没问题! 今天,我们要聊聊怎样变成社交网站最跑红的人物,学学西方文化中有哪些禁忌,还要告诉你怎么说压力山大!

B: Well, if you are talking about the most popular guy on social media who ever lived you don't have to look anywhere else! (咳咳...)

A: Exactly! Only on social media, never in real life! (笑; B: Hey!) 好了好了, 不开玩笑了,我们言归正传,赶快来进入第一个单元,learn a word!

Learn A Word 1590 stressful

今天我们要学的词是 stressful. Stressful is spelled s-t-r-e-s-s-f-u-l, stressful. Stressful 意思是压力很大的。Starting a new job can be exciting and stressful at the same time. 开始一份新工作可能既令人兴奋,又让人倍感压力。有调查显示,Law enforcement agents, taxi drivers, and corporate executives are among the most stressful jobs in the country. 执法人员,出租车司机和公司主管属于美国各种职业中压力最大的行业。美国新闻周刊公布了2012年度压力最大的25所大学的排行榜。在排行榜中,Washington University at Saint Louis is ranked as the most stressful university in the country. 圣路易斯的华盛顿大学被列为全美国学生压力最大的学校。好的,今天我们学习的词是stressful, stressful, stressful...

A: 说起压力大,最近工作真多,I'm so stressed out!

B: Awww...I'm sorry yanglin! You know what? I hear that making food for others can help you release stress. As a very compassionate friend, I will help you. You can bake me some cookies!

A: 你!做! 梦! Yeah, but seriously, I think that a messy environment can actually stress me out.

B: Exactly! I'm the same way! Last night I spent 4 hours cleaning my room, it was covered in flotsam and jetsam! No wonder I've been so stressed this week!

A: 对啊! 环境整洁,心情也更好! 不过你刚才提到一个很好的词儿, flotsam and jetsam ! 咱们现在就来学学这个习惯用语的用法吧!

Words and Idioms 987

美国习惯用语第 987讲。我是杨琳。

M:我是Dan Markus.

上个礼拜我帮一个好朋友搬家,结果发现她家有好多我认为没什么用的东西,什么大学时候的笔记本啊,书啊,还有看起来她好久都没穿过的衣服。我问她这些笔记本里是不是有很多珍贵资料,但她说,其实里面都是一些:

M: Flotsam and jetsam. Flotsam is spelled f-l-o-t-s-a-m, and jetsam; j-e-t-s-a-m. Flotsam-and-jetsam.

这两个词都不太常见,flotsam意思是船沉没以后漂浮在水面上的废物,而jetsam是指因为担心船会沉,所以扔到水里的废物,以便减轻船上的载物量。大家可能猜到了,flotsam and jetsam, 连起来就是没有价值的物品。就像上面的例子中,在我朋友的大学笔记本里: There wasn't any important information written down, it was all FLOATSAM AND JETSAM. 里面没有什么重要信息,全都没什么用。在下面的例子里,我们要看看一个人在他爷爷去世后整理遗物时发现了什么:

M: "After my grandfather died, I went to clean out his garage. I found piles of yellowed newspapers and magazines, empty bottles, pieces of used furniture, and broken tools and sports equipment. There was nothing of any value. It was nothing more than flotsam and jetsam."

[这段话是说: 我爷爷去世后,我去整理他的车库。那里有成捆范黄的旧报纸和杂志,空瓶子,旧家具,还有已经损坏的工具和体育器材。什么值钱的东西都没有,全都是废物。]

其实大家经常会在车库里堆些没有用的东西,久而久之也就忘记了。比如我,我每年就得清理一次我的衣橱,能发现好多我再也不会穿的衣服,把他们捐给慈善机构。I clean my closet once a year, and there are always some flotsam and jetsam. 好的,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "After my grandfather died, I went to clean out his garage. I found piles of yellowed newspapers and magazines, empty bottles, pieces of used furniture, and broken tools and sports equipment. There was nothing of any value. It was nothing more than flotsam and jetsam."

Flotsam and jetsam 这个短语,除了指没有价值的物品以外,还有另外一个意思,就是不受重视的人。下面的例子里,一个记者就要来给我们讲讲当地居民关注的问题,我们来听听看:

M: "Citizens who want more upscale living areas have been pleading with the City Council. They want to see more of the poorer neighborhoods redeveloped. They're tired of seeing homeless people wandering around. To them, such FLOTSAM AND JETSAM needs to be removed. "

[这段话是说:希望提升居住环境的居民一直请求市政厅,他们希望重新开发更多的贫困社区。他们不想再看到无家可归的人到处游荡,对他们来说,这些人不该出现在他们的社区附近。]

这也是可以理解的,谁不想要一个安全的居住环境呢?我最近听我们小区的人说,当地学校校长决定启动一个项目,帮助那些问题学生。He believed it was time to pay greater attention to the FLOTSAM AND JETSAM. And, truthfully, it is those struggling students that need more help. 他认为应该给那些不受重视的学生更多关怀。确实,那些问题学生需要更多的帮助。好了,我们再来听听刚才那段话:

M: "Citizens who want more upscale living areas have been pleading with the City Council. They want to see more of the poorer neighborhoods redeveloped. They're tired of seeing homeless people wandering around. To them, such FLOTSAM AND JETSAM needs to be removed. "

今天我们学习的习惯用语是flotsam and jetsam, 意思是毫无价值的物品,或者不受重视的人。好的,这次[美国习惯用语]就到此结束,我是杨琳,我是Dan Markus。

A: This term totally reminds me of facebook! Some of my friends put everything up there. There is so much flotsam and jetsam on their Facebook page! 都是没用的信息!

B: You can say that again. I really don't need to see 100 photos of a cat wearing a hat; or a status about someone's bodily functions, or a huge paragraph detailing your fight you just had with your girlfriend....

A: 就是! 我有个朋友,每天都在微博上上传100张她和她的狗的照片! 我有时候真想把她屏蔽了...

B: Yeah, it's all about how you use it. Social media is a great thing to connect with friends who are far from you, but you really need to watch out how much information you share.

A: 不过我们的节目不也是在微博上才积攒了那么多粉丝? 所以社交网站还是很有用的! 正好,在今天的美语三级跳里,我们就要跟着Matt一块在MyFace上建个帐户。咱们赶快来听听吧!

Computers: Advanced

今天我们为您播出“美语三级跳”节目“电脑”单元的高级课程。

Professor: Today we're learning some advanced words for talking about online social networking. Chloe is helping Matt build his MyFace page.

MyFace一听就知道是社交网站。

Matt: Thanks a lot for helping me build my MyFace profile, Chloe. I'm hoping that it will make me seem a lot cooler than I am in real life.

Chloe: Don't worry, Matt. By the time I'm done setting up your online profile, you will be the coolest, most popular guy who ever lived.

Matt: Awesome! So what should we do first?

Chloe: To start, we need a really cool profile picture. Do you have any pics of you doing something really exciting or funny?

Matt: Well .... I do have a great picture of me playing chess. Is that exciting enough?

Chloe: That's the most exciting picture you have? I can see I have a lot of work to do.

Chloe这下可有的忙了! Matt想当社交网站上的帅哥,Chloe说,第一步是要有一张特别吸引人的头像照片。可是Matt没什么拿得出手的好照片!

Professor: That's right. And did you notice how Chloe called the pictures "pics"? On the Internet, photographs are often called p-i-c-s, "pics".

噢," pics" 就是照片。

Chloe: Alright. Next we need to set your status to say that you're in a relationship.

Matt: Wait a minute, I don't have a girlfriend.

Chloe: I know! But you see, Matt, women only want what they can't have. Being unavailable will only make you more attractive to them.

Matt: But what happens after a girl starts to like me? If I ask her out on a date when I have a girlfriend, she will think I'm a creep.

Chloe: Don't worry. Then you just change your status to "It's Complicated" and tell her that you're going through a painful breakup, and that you need someone to talk to.

Matt: Wow, you're really good at this stuff!

哇, Chloe 还真是恋爱专家!她让Matt在网站上写自己有女朋友,这样反而更能获得女孩子的青睐! 因为女人总是越得不到的东西越想要!

Professor: Right! But what does she say he should do if a girl starts to like him?

她说,如果有女生看上Matt, Matt就要把感情状况"status"改成"It's complicated",“一言难尽”! 然后告诉对方,自己正在和女友分手。这样一来,就能和对方约会啦!

Chloe: Alright, the next thing we have to do is get you a lot of friends. You should send everyone you have ever met a message inviting them to be your friend on MyFace.

Matt: But what if I haven't talked to them in years? Isn't that kind of weird?

Chloe: Matt, that's not the point! The important thing is that when people look at your MyFace page, they see how popular you are because you have at least 500 friends.

Matt: Five hundred friends? But I don't have 500 friends. In fact, I think it's impossible for anyone to have 500 friends.

Chloe: Well then, invite people you don't like to be your friends too. It doesn't matter.

Matt: Invite people I don't like to be my friends? Man, this social networking stuff is really weird.

Chloe还建议Matt在网站上多加好友,好让别人觉得他交友广泛,受欢迎。为了凑数,她甚至让Matt邀请自己讨厌的人。

Professor: That's right. Matt thinks this kind of social networking is really strange.

对啊,本来是社交嘛,为什么要把自己讨厌的人也拉进来呢?

Chloe: Alright Matt, we're almost done. But there is one last important thing. Remember to post updates to your status every 15 minutes.

Matt: You mean every 15 minutes I should post an update about what I'm doing? What if I'm doing something really boring, like cleaning my apartment?

Chloe: It doesn't matter if you're doing something completely uninteresting. Post a message on your Web page so everyone knows what you're doing 24 hours per day.

Matt: Wow, this sounds like a lot of work. Maybe I don't really want a MyFace page.

Chloe: Oh yes you do! I want to add you to my list of friends. I'm almost to 700!

Chloe还让Matt随时随刻把生活中芝麻绿豆的事儿写在网上。我有些朋友就是这样的,哪怕是出门倒垃圾都要写在社交网站上,烦死人了!哎? Professor Bowman, 你干嘛呢?

Prof: ....What? Oh, yes! Winnie, (lower voice) I'm updating my Facebook status ....

A: Matt决定在社交网站上注册一个帐户,想变成网络红人。Chole说,一定要把 relationship status,感情状态写成Matt有女朋友,因为women only want what they can't have.女人总想要她们得不到的东西。而且要 post updates to your status every 15 minutes, 每隔15分钟就更新状态,让人家知道你24小时都在干什么! 这听起来好像天天不出门的宅男!

B: Post updates every 15 minutes? That's just insane. I think it's a social faux pas to post too frequently online. A lot of people find that really irritating.

A: 没错! 不过我记得我刚来美国的时候,对很多文化和风俗都不够了解,所以经常犯错!

B: Haha, but now you are an expert! In today's business etiquette, we are going to learn some of the social faux pas in American culture. Let's go and check it out!

礼节美语 Avoiding a Faux Pas Part I

中国雇员Cathy 忧心忡忡地去找美国同事 Mark 请教。

Kathy: Hey Mark...do you mind if I ask you a couple of questions?

Mark: No problem, I've got time.

K: Great! Well, I'm going to Seattle for half a year. I'm attending a course at a university and I'll be doing some research as well.

M: Sounds like fun!

K: Yes. But I'm really worried that I don't understand American culture well enough. You know how here in China we have lots of little things that are considered impolite...what if I do something wrong in America? I'd be so embarrassed if that happened!

原来,Kathy 要去西雅图进修半年,但是担心自己对美国文化和风土人情了解不够,会在小事情上闹笑话,让自己难堪,embarrassed, e-m-b-a-r-r-a-s-s-e-d, embarrassed。

M: Ah, I see! Actually, we have a great word in English that describes making a cultural mistake...it's called a "faux pas" and it's actually originally a French term.

K: So I should say I want to avoid any cultural "faux pas?"

M: That's correct. You know, actually you shouldn't worry too much. America is a pretty relaxed country, but there are a couple things you should be aware of.

K: Oh? Such as?

Mark 说,这种文化上的失误叫 faux fas, f-a-u-x and f-a-s, faux fas 是从法语来的。前面可以用动词 avoid 避免或是 commit 犯下。
Mark安慰 Cathy 说,美国是一个很随便的国家,American is a pretty relaxed country. 不过还是有些地方需要注意。Such as? 比如说呢?

M: Americans - and western people in general - can be very sensitive about smells.

K: Oh...so I should be careful after eating spicy foods, right?

M: Yep. Things like garlic or various Chinese dishes can have a strong smell. It's best to chew gum or use a breath freshener.

K: That's a good thing to remember. How about when I visit a friend's home? What do I bring?

Mark 说,西方人对气味非常敏感,中国人喜欢吃的大蒜等食物,都会留下十分浓重的味道,It's best to chew gum or use a breath freshener. 所以最好嚼嚼口香糖,设法去去嘴里的味儿。去朋友家作客,带点儿什么呢?

M: If you and your guest drink alcohol, it's always nice to bring a bottle of wine. If wine is a problem, you could try fruit or some kind of dessert.

K: But should it be an expensive gift?

M: No, the price is not so important. Just bring something to show you care about your hosts and are grateful for their invitation.

Mark 说,如果宾主双方都喝酒的话,带瓶葡萄酒绝对没错,否则的话,可以考虑带点水果或是甜点。礼物不一定要非常贵重,能够表达对主人的关心和对邀请的感激就可以了。

A: 原来,Kathy要去西雅图进修,请Mark来给她讲讲美国社会的风俗。Mark 说,America is a pretty relaxed country, 美国是一个很随便的国家,但是西方人普遍对气味很敏感,所以吃饭之后,It's best to chew gum or use a breath freshener, 应该嚼嚼口香糖,去去嘴里的味儿。去别人家做客,要带点小礼物,to show you are grateful for their invitation. So Mike, 你觉得什么是文化失误呢?

B: Hmm, there are a lot. For example, never ask someone about how much they make, never ask someone you just met about their political or religious belief; never ask a woman if she's pregnant...because it's just soo awkward if her answer is no....

A: 哈哈哈,对对对! 这可千万得小心,不然人家恨你一辈子! 好了,咱们接着去听听Mark还给Cathy讲了什么吧!

礼节美语 Avoiding a Faux Pas Part II

中国雇员Cathy 要去美国考察,找美国同事 Mark 了解美国文化,以免在待人接物的时候在礼节方面闹笑话。

K: If I'm using public transport...should I give up my seat if I see elderly people?

M: Yes. I think that's proper behavior pretty much everywhere in the world. Give up your seat to pregnant women, senior citizens and people with small children.

K: A friend told me that Westerners don't like it when people blow their nose.

M: Actually, that's true. In the West many think blowing your nose in public is a bit rude. Of course, if you have to do it, then you may - just turn as far away from people as possible and do it quietly. It would be even better to get up and move away before blowing your nose.

K: Wow...that's good to know. I might have committed a real "faux pas."

坐公交车给老人、小孩和孕妇让座,到哪里都不会错。在大庭广众之下擤鼻子会被认为是举止粗鲁。It is a bit rude to blow your nose in public. 如果迫不得已,最好尽量离别人远点,或者索性站起来,到旁边去擤。

M: And of course, spitting is always a no-no.

K: Yeah. I agree with that one. It's disgusting when someone coughs and spits in public. In the movies it seems like all Westerners wear their shoes indoors, is this true?

M: Many people in America do wear their shoes in the house. You should wipe off your shoes on the doormat before you go inside. But...more and more Western people are beginning to follow the Asian tradition of removing your shoes in the house.

Mark 说,随地吐痰是绝对不行的。spitting is always a no-no. 美国人在家也穿鞋?Mark 说,不少美国人在家确实穿鞋,但是去别人家作客,最好 wipe off your shoes on the doormat before you go inside. 进去以前最好在门垫上把鞋底擦干净。

K: My boss told me that it's a super big faux pas to be late in Japan. Is that true in America as well?

M: Yes...but we are a little more flexible. If you arrive within five minutes of a meeting time it might be OK. But it's always best to be on time or be early.

K: When I was in London last year I was eating with my Chinese friend. She whistled for a waiter to come over and when the man came over, he looked so angry!

M: Oh, yes...that's a major faux pas. NEVER snap your fingers or whistle at any kind of service personnel. It's considered very impolite!

K: Mark...I can't thank you enough for your tips! I really appreciate it!

M: Sure! Let's chat again before you leave.

迟到在日本是大忌,a super big faux pas。Mark 说,在美国虽然没那么严格,迟到五分钟也算正常,但最好还是准时或是提前到。还有,在西方,招呼任何服务人员,都不能打响指或是吹口哨。NEVER snap your fingers or whistle at any kind of service personnel. 这样做被认为是非常不礼貌的。

A: Yeah, I hate people who's constantly late! What's the point in setting a specific time if you are not going to be there by then?

B: But isn't it you who always set the alarm clock at seven and come to office at eleven?

A: aThat's different, I need my beauty sleep! (B: you need more than sleep....) 好了同学们,这次节目时间就到这里了。
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