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中国时间: 06:57 2016年12月11日星期日

双语新闻 (2015年11月25日)

  • 美国之音

**世界气象组织:2015世界创最热记录**

根据世界气象组织,2015年全球平均气温可能将是有记录以来最热的。世界气象组织说,气候变化的影响已经导致全球气温比工业化时代前增加了1摄氏度。

世界气象组织秘书长雅罗说:“2015年可能是创纪录最热的一年,海洋表面温度是自从有测量以来最热的水平。很可能会超过1摄氏度的门槛。这对于这个星球来说都是坏消息。”

世界气象组织表示,这些都是全球变暖和厄尔尼诺大洋现象综合作用的结果。

根据世界气象组织的报告,从2011到2015的5年期间是有记录以来最热的5年,在气候变化的作用下产生了很多极端天气,尤其是热浪。

世界气象组织的报告说,南美2015年是创纪录最热的年份,亚洲也是如此,非洲和欧洲是有记录以来第二最热的年份。

雅罗说,“造成气候变化的温室气体排放是可以被控制的,我们有这方面的知识和手段可以运用。”

这份报告发表一周之后,世界领导人将在巴黎召开2015联合国气候变化大会。

World Weather Warmest on Record

Average global temperatures in 2015 are likely to be the hottest ever recorded, according to the World Meteorological Organization.

The effects of climate change have led to global temperature increases of 1 degree Celsius above the pre-industrial era, according to the WMO.

"2015 is likely to be the hottest year on record, with ocean surface temperatures at the highest level since measurements began. It is probable that the 1 degree Celsius threshold will be crossed," said WMO Secretary-General Michel Jarraud. "This is all bad news for the planet."

The WMO says this is due to a combination of global warming and the El Niño oceanic phenomenon.

According to the WMO report, the five-year period from 2011-2015 has been the warmest on record "with many extreme weather events - especially heatwaves - influenced by climate change."

It says South America is having its hottest year on record, as is Asia, while Africa and Europe are having their second hottest.

"Greenhouse gas emissions, which are causing climate change, can be controlled," Jarraud said. "We have the knowledge and the tools to act."

The report comes just a week before world leaders meet in Paris for the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference.

**美国:多起失误导致错误袭击阿富汗医院**

美国军方调查显示,美军部队上个月在阿富汗昆都士误认袭击目标而对一所医院进行了半小时空袭,导致至少30人丧生,其中大多是医生和病人。

美国和国际部队在阿富汗的指挥官、陆军上将坎贝尔星期三说,阿富汗部队请求美军空中支援,袭击据信被塔利班武装人员占据的国家安全董事会大楼。结果调查显示,AC-130机组人员向450米外一所由国际慈善机构医生无国界运营的医院发射211颗炮弹。

坎贝尔星期三在喀布尔说,“这是一个悲剧性错误。”他说,“这是人为和程序错误的一个例子,是由可以避免的人为错误直接造成的。”

坎贝尔说,几个问题导致了这一错误。机组人员比计划提前一个多小时展开行动,没有参加一次关键的简报会,会上一般会包括确认像无国界医生组织的医院这种非袭击区的信息。在飞机飞行时电子系统出了故障,使得机组无法传送视频、收发电邮或者电子信息。

坎贝尔对记者说,机组人员当时认为他们是导弹袭击目标,于是他们飞离飞机正常袭击范围,降低了目标系统的准确率。这似乎导致了塔利班的地面目标坐标锁定在一处空地。机组目测找到空地附近“最近、最大”的建筑物,认为那就是目标,于是开火。

坎贝尔说,与这次袭击有关的一些军事人员已经暂停工作,等候可能的纪律处分。美国计划帮助医生无国界重建那所医院。

US: Multiple Errors Led to Mistaken, Deadly Attack on Afghan Hospital

American forces misidentified a target in Kunduz, Afghanistan last month that resulted in a mistaken half-hour aerial attack on a hospital that killed at least 30 people, mostly doctors and patients, according to a U.S. military investigation.

Army Gen. John Campbell, the commander of U.S. and international forces in Afghanistan, said Wednesday that Afghan forces asked for U.S. air support to strike a National Directorate of Security building believed to be occupied by Taliban fighters. According to the report, the AC-130 air crew instead fired 211 shells at a hospital operated by the international charity Doctors Without Borders (MSF) that was 450 meters away.

"This was a tragic mistake," Campbell said in Kabul Wednesday. "This is an example of human and process error. It was directly the result of avoidable human error."

Several factors contributed to the mistake, according to Campbell. The air crew launched more than an hour earlier than planned, missing out on a crucial brief that would normally include identifying no-strike areas such as the MSF hospital. Once in flight, the aircraft's electronic systems malfunctioned, eliminating the crew's ability to transmit video, send and receive email, or send and receive electronic messages.

The crew then believed it was the target of a missile, Campbell told reporters, so they moved out of the aircraft's normal strike range, degrading the accuracy of the targeting system. That loss of accuracy appeared to cause the coordinates of the Taliban target to land on an open field. The crew visually located the "closest, largest" building to that field and, thinking that was the target, fired on it.

Campbell said some military personnel involved in the incident have been suspended from duties pending possible disciplinary action, and that the U.S. intends to assist Doctors Without Borders in rebuilding the hospital.

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