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中国时间 22:01 2018年9月24日 星期一

双语新闻(2018年5月3日)


记者无国界组织公布的世界新闻自由状况示意图

新闻自由团体呼吁关注美国媒体面临的威胁

这个星期四是世界新闻自由日。一些倡导新闻自由的组织呼吁关注美国媒体工作者面临的挑战。

一份报告列举了媒体工作者面临的威胁,包括更多的举报人被起诉、政府限制公共信息、被政界人士蒙污、受人身攻击、以及被任意逮捕。

“宪法第19条”的执行总监休斯说:“必须挑战美国近年来新闻自由受到越来越多威胁的现象。这些威胁不仅影响美国的言论自由,而且在全世界都有连锁反应。”

“宪法第19条”组织与保护记者委员会、国际言论自由交流会、国际新闻研究所、审查指数以及记者无国界一道和一些美国记者进行了谈话。

他们的报告说,尽管有当前的威胁,但是美国宪法的保护使得美国媒体位于全世界最自由的媒体之列。不过报告还说,川普总统的言辞,特别是他声称反对的“假新闻”,引起世界其它国家领导人的共鸣,包括委内瑞拉总统马杜罗、叙利亚总统阿萨德以及缅甸实际上的领导人昂山素季。

报告说,在前美国总统奥巴马执政期间就有越来越多的举报人被起诉。这份报告还对川普行政当局针对记者保护消息来源的立场表示担心。报告批评川普总统对媒体发出的口头抨击,还说这种做法鼓励了其他政界人士予以效仿。

记者无国界组织在它上星期公布的新闻自由年度排名报告里把美国的排名降低了两个名次。

白宫对有关批评提出反驳。白宫新闻秘书桑德斯对记者说,她认为川普行政当局是数十年来最开放的美国政府。

Press Freedom Groups Highlight US Media Threats

With the observation of World Press Freedom Day on Thursday, a group of press freedom organizations is calling attention to challenges faced by journalists in the United States.

The report cites a number of threats to the work of journalists, including a rise in whistleblower prosecutions, government restrictions on public information, stigmatization by politicians, physical attacks and arbitrary arrests.

"The alarming rise in threats to press freedom in the U.S. over recent years must be challenged," said Thomas Hughes, executive director of Article 19. "Not only do these threats impact on freedom of expression in the U.S., but they have repercussions around the world."

Article 19 joined with the Committee to Protect Journalists, International Freedom of Expression Exchange, International Press Institute, Index on Censorship and Reporters Without Borders to interview U.S. journalists.

Their report said despite current threats, protections in the U.S. Constitution make media in the United States among the most free in the world. But it noted instances of President Donald Trump's statements, most notably his rejection of what he calls "fake news," being echoed by leaders in other countries, including Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and Myanmar's de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi.

The report notes a rise in whistleblower prosecutions began under former President Barack Obama, and expresses concern about the Trump administration's positions on reporters' abilities to protect their sources. It also faults Trump for verbal attacks on the media, saying those have helped embolden other politicians to do the same.

Reporters Without Borders cited those concerns in its own annual press freedom rankings last week as it dropped the United States down two spots.

The White House rejected criticisms, with Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders telling reporters she thinks the Trump administration is "one of the most accessible" in decades.

国际货币基金组织批评委内瑞拉

国际货币基金组织星期三批评委内瑞拉未将重要经济数据交给国际货币基金组织。

该组织的一份声明说:“(执行)董事会认为,得到相关数据是了解委内瑞拉经济危机和寻找可能的解决方案的第一个关键步骤。”

国际货币基金组织的执董会又给了委内瑞拉6个月的时间完成数据提交,如果还不能完成,委内瑞拉有可能被开除出国际货币基金组织。

国际货币基金组织的声明说:“委内瑞拉如果愿意重新开始与基金组织一道工作,基金组织愿意与委内瑞拉进行建设性的合作,寻找化解其经济危机的办法。”

委内瑞拉对国际货币基金组织的举措没有做出回应。不过,委内瑞拉总统马杜罗的社会党政府一直拒绝向国际货币基金组织提供经济数据,认为该组织是美国的一个工具,也是美国向委内瑞拉发起的经济战的组成部分。

腐败以及世界能源价格下跌在石油蕴量丰富的委内瑞拉导致经济灾难,包括超高通胀以及很多基本物资的短缺。

IMF Censures Venezuela

The International Monetary Fund censured Venezuela Wednesday for failing to hand over essential economic data to the fund.

"The (Executive) Board noted that adequate data provision was an essential first step to understanding Venezuela's economic crisis and identifying possible solutions," an IMF statement said.

The board is giving Venezuela another six months to comply or face possible expulsion from the IMF.

"The Fund stands ready to work constructively with Venezuela toward resolving its economic crisis when it is prepared to re-engage with the Fund."

Venezuela has not responded to the IMF's action. But President Nicolas Maduro's socialist government has long declined to provide data to the IMF. It regards the Fund as a U.S. tool and part of a Washington-inspired economic war against Venezuela.

Corruption and the collapse of world energy prices has led to an economic calamity in oil-rich Venezuela, including hyper-inflation and severe shortages of many basic goods.

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