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中国时间 10:25 2019年5月27日 星期一

双语新闻(2018年10月29日)


Jair Bolsonaro, presidential candidate with the Social Liberal Party, waves after voting in the presidential runoff election in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Sunday, Oct. 28, 2018. Bolsonaro is running against leftist candidate Fernando Haddad of the Workers’ P

巴西极右翼候选人赢得总统选举

巴西极右翼国会议员博尔索纳罗赢得了总统大选。

目前计票工作基本完成之际,社会自由党的博尔索纳罗在周日的决选中赢得了大约56%的选票。他的竞选对手、劳工党的左派候选人费尔南多·哈达德得票为44%。

博尔索纳罗曾是一名陆军上尉,他极右翼的言论和承诺,以及充满活力的个性为他赢得了“热带特朗普”的绰号。

美国总统特朗普周一表示,他与新当选的巴西总统“交谈甚欢”,两人同意美国和巴西将在“贸易、军事和其他一切方面”密切合作。

博尔索纳罗也像特朗普一样,喜欢把自己描绘成一个反建制派的局外人。不过博尔索纳罗在巴西国会任职27年。

他的胜利是选民对过去15年中大部分时间统治巴西的左翼政府的逆反。巴西这个拉丁美洲最大的经济体自2014年以来陷入衰退。政治机构受到高层腐败丑闻的影响,犯罪率和谋杀率飙升。

博尔索纳罗竞选时承诺变革,他形容自己是一名支持依法治理的候选人,将为警方提供更多自由来打击犯罪。

但是他对1964年至1985年军事独裁统治的钦佩以及对同性恋、黑人和女性的冒犯性评论,让许多巴西人感到不安。

他们担心博尔索纳罗的新政府将不尊重人权、公民自由和言论自由, 特别是左派人士。

巴西政府从1964年开始实行军事独裁,直到1985年建立民主。在此期间,军方被控对反对派人士实行处决和酷刑,并以防止共产主义蔓延的名义扼杀异议人士。

许多商界人士支持博尔索纳罗的自由市场经济立场,就是通过将国有企业私有化刺激经济增长,减少监管,并使外国投资者更容易进入巴西市场。

基督教福音派也支持博尔索纳罗的承诺,包括在学校结束性教育,保持堕胎非法,结束同性婚姻等。

Far-Right Candidate Wins Brazil's Presidential Election

Far-right congressman Jair Bolsonaro has won Brazil's presidential election. With nearly all of the ballots counted, Bolsonaro of the Social Liberal Party won about 56 percent of the votes in Sunday's runoff. His left-leaning opponent, Fernando Haddad of the Workers Party, took 44 percent.

Bolsonaro is a former army captain whose far-right rhetoric and promises, and feisty personality earned him the nickname of "Tropical Trump."

President Donald Trump said Monday he had a "very good conversation with the newly election president," and that the two agreed the U.S. and Brazil will work closely together on "Trade, Military and everything else!"

Like the U.S. president, he likes to paint himself as an anti-establishment outsider. But Bolsonaro spent 27 years in the Brazilian congress.

His win is a voter rejection of the leftist administrations that have governed Brazil for most of the last 15 years. Latin America's largest economy has been stuck in recession since 2014. The political establishment has been rocked by a high-level corruption scandal, and crime and murder rates have spiked.

Bolsonaro campaigned for change, describing himself as a law and order candidate who will give police more freedom to crack down on crime.

But many Brazilians are disturbed by his professed admiration of the 1964-1985 military dictatorship, and for offensive comments about gays, blacks, and women.

They fear a Bolsonaro government will trample on human rights, civil liberties, and free speech -- especially by leftists.

Brazil's government was a military dictatorship from 1964 until the establishment of democracy in 1985. During that period, the military was accused of executing and torturing opponents, and stifling dissent in the name of preventing the spread of communism.

Many business people support Bolsonaro's free market economic positions, which would stimulate growth by privatizing state-owned enterprises, reduce regulations, and making it easier for foreign investors to enter the Brazilian market.

Christian evangelicals also support Bolsonaro's promise to end sex education in the schools, keep abortion illegal, and end same-sex marriage.

大多数美国人若参加公民考试将无法通过

根据最近的一项调查显示,只有三分之一的美国人能通过在公民考试时会提出的多项选择考试,而通过的标准并不特别高。考生只要得到至少60分,相当于“D”分,就算通过考试。

公民身份考试是美国入籍程序的一部分,适用于非美国出生的人。在美国的合法永久居民,也就是“绿卡”持有人,通常可以在美国居住5年后申请公民身份。

参加考试的美国人中有近四分之三的人无法在多项选择考题中选出美国最初的13个殖民州,57%的人不能说有美国最高法院有多少法官,有超过一半的 60% 的人不知道美国在第二次世界大战期间与哪些国家作战。

非营利组织伍德罗威尔逊基金会的里卡德说:“这真的很让人伤脑筋。“他说,“这显示出真正需要开始研究我们如何在美国教授和学习历史,以及我们如何才能让历史对现在的学生来说更有意义、更有趣、更有吸引力,来扭转这种趋势。“

令人啼笑皆非的是,40%参加考试的人表示历史是他们在学校时最喜欢的科目。

参加考试的老年人得分最高,65岁以上的人中有74%正确地回答了10个问题中至少6个问题。而45岁以下的人中只有19%的能通过考试。

Most Americans would fail a U.S. citizenship test if they had to take it

Just one in three Americans can pass a multiple choice exam featuring questions taken from the U.S. Citizenship Test, according to a recent survey. And the bar isn't particularly high. Test takers must get a score of at least 60 percent — the equivalent of a "D" grade — to pass the exam.

The citizenship test is a part of the U.S. naturalization process for people not born in the United States. People who are legal permanent residents — known as "Green Card" holders — can normally apply for citizenship after living in the United States for a 5-year period.

Almost three-fourths of the Americans who took the test couldn't pick out the 13 original colonies in the multiple choice exam, 57 percent couldn't say how many justices serve on the U.S. Supreme Court, and more than half — 60 percent — didn't know which countries the United States fought during World War II.

“It really becomes troublesome," says Patrick Riccards of the non-profit Woodrow Wilson Foundation. "It points to a real need to begin to look at how we are teaching and learning history in this country, and what we can do to make history more relevant, more interesting, more engaging for today’s students so that we can reverse this trend.”

Ironically, 40 percent of people who took the test cited history as their favorite subject while they were in school.

Senior citizens achieved the highest scores, with 74 percent of people over 65 answering at least six out of 10 questions correctly. Only 19 percent of people under the age of 45 managed to pass the exam.

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